The distributions of H3-K4 mono-, di-, and tri-methylation exhibi

The distributions of H3-K4 mono-, di-, and tri-methylation exhibited selleckchem exactly the same pattern as LSD1. LSD1 expression was induced both region and cell specifically after ischemic/perfusion, and complied with the two-peak mode of expression.

These studies revealed a tightly regulated distribution for LSD1 in the brain

of rats under ischemic insult, suggesting a critical role in neuron function. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society All rights reserved.”
“The envelope of the human hepatitis B virus (HBV) contains three membrane proteins (L, M, and S). They accomplish different functions in HBV infectivity and nucleocapsid envelopment. Infectivity determinants have been assigned to the N-terminal part of the pre-S1 domain of the L protein and the antigenic loop of the S domain in the L and/or S protein. Nucleocapsid envelopment requires a C-terminal sequence within pre-S1, including

the five N-terminal amino acids of pre-S2 as part of the L protein. However, the role of the M protein and the pre-S2 domain of the L protein are not entirely understood. We addressed this question and analyzed assembly competence and infectivity of viruses that lack the M protein and, at the same click here time, carry alterations in the pre-S2 domain of L. These include deletions, in part frameshift mutations and a randomization of virtually the entire pre-S2 sequence. We found that the M protein is dispensable for HBV in vitro infectivity.

Viruses that lack the M protein and contain a mostly randomized pre-S2 sequence assemble properly and are infectious in HepaRG cells and primary human hepatocytes. While deletions of 20 amino acids in the pre-S2 domain of L protein allowed the production of infectious virions, more extended deletions interfered with assembly. This indicates that the pre-S2 domain of the L protein serves an important role for virus assembly, presumably as a spacer that supports conformational changes of L protein but does not participate as part of the M protein or as a subdomain of the L protein in virus entry.”
“The human cerebral neocortex is divided into BIBW2992 datasheet six layers consisting of specific neuronal cell types and connections To determine the distribution of cortical neurons during early development, we examined the expressions of layer-specific markers in human midterm fetal brains Layer V marker ZNF312 is expressed in most cortical areas, but not in the prospective somatosensory association area. Expression of layer IV marker ROR beta is also diminished in this region but Increased in the primary visual cortex, where expression of ZNF312 is reduced. Our results indicate that ZNF312 and other layer markers have area dependent expressions in the human fetal cortex (C) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.”
“Bats are the second largest group of mammals on earth and act as reservoirs of many emerging viruses.

GB virus B (GBV-B), the virus phylogenetically most closely relat

GB virus B (GBV-B), the virus phylogenetically most closely related to HCV, causes hepatitis in tamarins. We have demonstrated the suitability of the tamarin as a host for GBV-B and as a surrogate nonhuman primate model for HCV infection, and we have initiated studies of GBV-B infection in a closely PRT062607 datasheet related species, the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). Here, we demonstrate that marmosets exhibit two phenotypes upon infection with GBV-B: the susceptible phenotype and the partially resistant phenotype. In addition, we identify changes that may correlate with adaptation of the virus to the partially resistant host. GBV-B

was serially passaged five times through 14 marmosets as one lineage and two times through 6 marmosets as a second lineage. Virus adapted to the marmosets and eventually exhibited robust infections in two separate lineages, lineages 1 and 2. A third lineage was initiated with a molecular clone, and again, susceptible and partially resistant phenotypes were observed. Three isolates were fully sequenced (from lineage 1), and 21 nucleotide changes were observed, with six amino acid changes. We speculate that the marmoset partially resistant phenotype may be due to a polymorphism in the marmoset population that affects critical virus-host interactions and that wild-type GBV-B is capable of rapidly adapting

to this altered host.”
“A mouse model of amyotrophic LY294002 lateral sclerosis-parkinsonism-dementia complex based on the consumption of cycad seed flour was used to determine whether the observed pathology of motor neuron loss begins in the distal axons or the spinal cord. Assessments of neuromuscular junction integrity and motor neurons were performed at multiple time points. Mice fed cycad pellets performed worse on the wire hang than controls. Microglial activation in cycad-fed mice was observed with motor neuron degeneration at 12 weeks, but reactive astrocyte proliferation was not observed. After 33 weeks of cycad feeding, motor neuron loss had stabilized, with no evidence of neuromuscular Selleck Bafilomycin A1 junction endplate denervation. These data suggest that neuronal pathology

begins at the soma and proceeds distally in a ‘dying forward’ pattern. NeuroReport 20:1284-1289 (C) 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health vertical bar Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.”
“Viruses utilize host factors in many steps of their life cycles. Yet, little is known about host factors that contribute to the life cycle of hepatitis B virus (HBV), which replicates its genome by reverse transcription. To identify host factors that contribute to viral reverse transcription, we sought to identify cellular proteins that interact with HBV polymerase (Pol) by using affinity purification coupled with mass spectrometry. One of the HBV Pol-interacting host factors identified was DDX3 DEAD-box RNA helicase, which unwinds RNA in an ATPase-dependent manner.

The concentration of intracellular chloride in neurons is mainly

The concentration of intracellular chloride in neurons is mainly regulated by two cation-chloride cotransporters, the potassium-chloride cotransporter 2 (KCC2) and the sodium-potassium-chloride co-transporter 1 (NKCC1). In this study, we measured the reversal potential

of IPSPs (E(IPSP)) of lumbar motoneurons during the first postnatal BX-795 concentration week and we investigated the expression of KCC2 and NKCC1 in the ventral horn of the spinal cord from the embryonic day 17 to the postnatal day 20 in the rat. Our results suggest that the negative shift of E(IPSP) from above to below the resting membrane potential occurs during the first postnatal week when the expression of KCC2 increases significantly and the expression of NKCC1 decreases. KCC2 immunolabeling surrounded motoneurons, presumably in the plasma membrane and NKCC1 immunolabeling appeared outside this KCC2-labeled fine strip. Taken together, the present results indicate that maturation of chloride homeostasis is not completed at birth in the rat and that the upregulation of KCC2 plays a key role in the shift from depolarizing to hyperpolarizing IPSPs. (C) 2009 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”

present study investigated a skill-level-dependent interaction between gravity and muscular force when striking piano keys. Kinetic AZD5363 in vitro analysis of the arm during the downswing motion performed by expert and novice piano players was made using an inverse dynamic technique. The corresponding activities of the elbow agonist and antagonist muscles were simultaneously recorded using electromyography (EMG). Muscular torque at the elbow joint was computed while excluding the effects of gravitational and motion-dependent interaction torques. During descending the forearm to strike the keys, the experts kept the activation of the triceps (movement agonist) muscle close to the resting level, and decreased anti-gravity activity of the biceps muscle across all loudness levels. This suggested that elbow extension

torque was produced by gravity without the contribution of agonist muscular work. For the novices, on the other hand, a distinct activity in the triceps muscle appeared during the middle of the downswing, and its amount and duration we e increased with increasing loudness. Therefore, for the novices, agonist muscular force was the GABA Receptor predominant contributor to the acceleration of elbow extension during the downswing. We concluded that a balance shift from muscular force dependency to gravity dependency for the generation of a target joint torque occurs with long-term piano training. This shift would support the notion of non-muscular force utilization for improving physiological efficiency of limb movement with respect to the effective use of gravity. (C) 2009 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Objectives. Controversy exists over the optimal hospital type to which high-risk surgical patients should be referred for operative management.

Seroprevalence in humans was examined by screening sera from 30 a

Seroprevalence in humans was examined by screening sera from 30 adults and 17 young children for PVM-neutralizing activity. Sera from a single child (6%) and 40% of adults had low neutralizing activity against PVM, which could be consistent with increasing incidence of exposure following early childhood. There was no cross-reaction of human or AGM sera between RSV and PVM and no cross-protection in the mouse model. In native Western blots, human sera reacted with RSV but not PVM proteins under conditions in which AGM immune sera reacted strongly. Serum reactivity was further evaluated by flow cytometry using unfixed Vero cells infected with PVM or RSV expressing

green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a measure of viral gene expression. The reactivity of human sera against RSV-infected cells correlated with GFP expression, whereas reactivity against PVM-infected cells was low and LCZ696 in vivo S3I-201 uncorrelated with GFP expression. Thus, PVM specificity was not evident. Our results indicate that the PVM-neutralizing activity of human sera is not due to RSV- or PVM-specific antibodies but may be due to low-affinity, polyreactive natural antibodies of the IgG subclass. The absence of PVM-specific antibodies and restriction in nonhuman primates makes PVM unlikely to be a human pathogen.”
“In membrane protein biochemical

and structural studies, detergents are used to mimic membrane environment and maintain functional, stable conformation of membrane proteins in the absence of lipid bilayers. However, detergent concentration, esp. molar ratio of membrane protein to detergent

is usually unknown. Here, a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry selected ion monitoring (GC-MS-SIM) method was developed to quantify four detergents which are frequently used in membrane protein structural studies. To remove excessive detergents, a filtered centrifugation using Centricon tubes was applied. A membrane protein Ig-Beta fragment in four different detergent micelles was exemplified. Detergent concentrations in the upper and lower fraction of the Centricon tube were measured after each round of centrifugation. The results were very consistent to basic properties of detergent micelles in aqueous solvents. Therefore, coupling of GC-MS-SIM and detergent removal by Centricon Enzalutamide solubility dmso tubes, detergents concentration, esp. molar ratio of membrane protein to detergent could be controlled, which will expedite membrane protein structural and biochemical studies. (C) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”

Menorrhagia is a common problem, yet evidence to inform decisions about therapy is limited. In a pragmatic, multicenter, randomized trial, we compared the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (levonorgestrel-IUS) with usual medical treatment in women with menorrhagia who presented to their primary care providers.

5 cm “
“BACKGROUND: Tremor is an important cause of disabili

5 cm.”
“BACKGROUND: Tremor is an important cause of disability in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Deep brain stimulation (DBS) in the ventral intermediate nucleus (VIM) of the thalamus is said to be beneficial for MS tremor.

OBJECTIVE: To assess the long-term efficacy of VIM DBS for MS disabling


METHODS: We treated 10 patients (4 men and 6 women) with advanced MS-related medication-resistant tremor with DBS at the VIM thalamic nucleus. DBS was unilateral in 9 patients and bilateral selleck chemicals in 1 patient in 2 stages. Contralateral arm tremor was assessed with the Fahn-Tolosa-Marin tremor rating scale.

RESULTS: At 1 year, 5 of 10 patients (5 of 11 hemispheres) had a reduction in tremor scores with stimulation compared with baseline; in 3 HKI-272 order patients, the reduction was > 50%. After 36 months, 3 patients continued benefiting from stimulation, 2 having > 50% improvement. Of the 6 symptomatic sides that did not benefit at 1 year, 3 failed to have even initial benefit, and 3 had a transient improvement lasting < 1 year. One patient stopped using stimulation because of a lack of improvement at 5 months after surgery and was lost to follow-up.

CONCLUSION: Approximately one-half of the patients derived some benefit from VIM DBS

1 year after surgery, but this benefit reached a > 50% reduction in only 30% of the patients. This level of improvement may be related to the variability of the demyelinating MRIP lesions and the superimposition of ataxia in the MS patients. Developing better treatments for MS tremor continues to be a challenge.”
“Most kidney diseases that ultimately lead to end-stage renal failure originate within the glomerulus and are associated with proteinuria. Treatment

options are unspecific and offer partial cures at best because available therapies do not primarily treat glomerular cells but rather act systemically and thus cause many side effects. Most glomerulopathies directly stem from injury to podocytes, cells that have a key role in the maintenance of the glomerular filter. Thus, these cells constitute an obvious and promising target for the development of novel kidney-protective drugs. During the last decade, enormous advances have been made in the understanding of podocyte structure and function. A number of pathways that are altered during glomerular diseases may be targeted by novel small-and large-molecule drugs as well as biologicals that have been identified in nephrology and other areas of drug development. Cultured podocytes provide a valuable model for high-throughput drug screening assays. Furthermore, podocytes have been shown to possess many features that make them particularly good target cells for renal protection.

001) and marginally in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM; P

001) and marginally in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM; P=0.7). These findings suggest that hypertension in the BPH/2J mice is associated with greater sympathetic vasomotor responses to central pathways mediating the arousal responses to acute aversive stress in particular the amygdala, hypothalamus and rostral ventrolateral LY2109761 ic50 medulla. (C) 2010 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) and Triticum mosaic virus (TriMV) are widespread throughout the southwestern Great Plains states. When using conventional diagnostics such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), these two viruses are commonly

found together in infected wheat samples. Methods for molecular detection have been developed for wheat viral pathogens, but until recently no multiplex method for detection of both WSMV and TriMV within a single sample was available. Therefore, the objective of this study was to develop a multiplex real-time PCR technique for detection of both pathogens see more within a single plant sample. Specific primers and probe combinations were developed for detection of WSMV and TriMV, single and multiple reactions were run simultaneously to detect any loss in sensitivity during the multiplex reaction, as well as any cross-reaction with other common wheat viruses. The multiplex reaction was successful in detection of both pathogens, with little difference

between single and multiplex reactions, and no cross-reaction was found with other common wheat viruses. This multiplex technique not only will be useful for diagnostic evaluations, but also as a valuable tool for ecological and epidemiology studies, and investigations of host/pathogen interactions, especially when the host is infected with both pathogens. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“The cholinergic input from the lateral dorsal tegmental area (LDTg) modulates the dopamine cells of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and plays an important role in cocaine taking. Specific pharmacological agents that block or stimulate muscarinic receptors in the LDTg

change acetylcholine (ACh) levels in the VTA. Furthermore, manipulations of cholinergic input in the VTA can change cocaine taking. In the current study, the ACh output from the LDTg was attenuated by treatment with the selective click here muscarinic type 2 (M2) autoreceptor agonist oxotremorine . sesquifumarate (OxoSQ). We hypothesized that OxoSQ would reduce the motivation of rats to self-administer both natural and drug rewards. Animals were tested on progressive ratio (PR) schedules of reinforcement for food pellets and cocaine. On test days, animals on food and on cocaine schedules were bilaterally microinjected prior to the test. Rats received either LDTg OxoSQ infusions or LDTg artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF) infusions in a within-subjects design. In addition, infusions were delivered into a dorsal brain area above the LDTg as an anatomical control region.

In the present study, we examined

In the present study, we examined check details the effects of gintonin on Kv1.2 channel activity expressed in Xenopus oocytes after injection of RNA encoding the human Kv1.2 alpha subunit. Gintonin treatment inhibited Kv1.2 channel activity in reversible and concentration-dependent manners. The inhibitory effect of gintonin on Kv1.2 channel activity was blocked by active phospholipase C inhibitor,

inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor antagonist, and intracellular Ca2+ chelator. The co-expression of active receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase alpha (RPTP alpha) with Kv1.2 channel greatly attenuated gintonin-mediated inhibition of Kv1.2 channel activity, but attenuation was not observed with catalytically inactive RPTP alpha. Furthermore, neither genistein, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, nor site-directed mutation of a tyrosine residue (Y132 to Y132F), which is phosphorylated by tyrosine kinase of the N-terminal of the Kv1.2 channel alpha subunit, significantly attenuated gintonin-mediated inhibition of Kv1.2 channel activity. These results indicate that the gintonin-mediated Kv1.2 channel regulation involves the dual coordination of both

selleck products tyrosine kinase and RPTP alpha coupled to this receptor. Finally, gintonin-mediated regulation of Kv1.2 channel activity might explain one of the modulations of gintonin-mediated neuronal activities in nervous systems. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved,”
“Renal proximal tubular damage and repair are hallmarks of acute kidney injury. As glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta (GSK3 beta) is an important cellular regulator of survival and proliferation, we determined its role during injury and recovery of proximal tubules in a mercuric chloride-induced nephrotoxic model of acute kidney injury. Renal proximal tubule-specific GSK3 beta knockout mice exposed to mercuric chloride had improved survival and renal function compared to wild-type mice. Apoptosis, measured by TUNEL staining, Bax activation, and caspase 3 cleavage, was reduced in the knockout mice. The restoration of renal structure, function, and cell proliferation was also accelerated

in the GSK3 beta knockout mice. Microtubule Associated This enhanced repair, evidenced by increased Ki-67 and BRDU staining, along with increased cyclin D1 and c-myc levels, was recapitulated by treatment of wild-type mice with the small-molecule GSK3 inhibitor TDZD-8 following injury. This confirmed that hastened repair in the knockout mice was not merely due to lower initial injury levels. Thus, inhibition of GSK3 beta prior to nephrotoxic insult protects from renal injury. Such treatment after acute kidney injury may accelerate repair and regeneration. Kidney International (2012) 82, 1000-1009; doi:10.1038/ki.2012.239; published online 11 July 2012″
“In this article, we use meta-analysis to analyze gender differences in recent studies of mathematics performance.

Major adverse events included one or more of the following: death

Major adverse events included one or more of the following: death, stroke, myocardial infarction, renal failure, respiratory failure, paralysis, or bowel ischemia.

Results: There were 60 symptomatic patients (68.3% men; mean age, 46 years) with traumatic aortic transections, of which 97% were due to a motor vehicle accident and 3% were related Anlotinib to other blunt trauma. The average total injury severity score was 39, most with involvement of the chest and abdomen. The average surgical time was 125 minutes. The mean hospital length of stay was 17 days. Associated procedures for the management of nonaortic injuries occurred in 51.7%. All-cause mortality

was 9.1% at 30 days and 14.4% at 1 year. One or more major adverse events occurred in 23.3% of the patients, major adverse events occurred early in 20.0% and late in 3.6%. Death accounted for 41.7% of the early and all of the late major adverse events. Early adverse events included 16.7% pulmonary, 13.3% neurologic, and 11.7% vascular complications. Late adverse events included one patient (1.8%) with pulmonary failure and one patient (1.8%) who died of an unknown cause.

Conclusions: One-year

results of endogaft placement for the management of patients with traumatic aortic injury are acceptable. Most cases treated were due to motor vehicle accident and associated with multiple selleck screening library coexisting injuries. Approximately three-quarters of the deaths occurred days, indicating the acute severity of the condition. Although the relatively low rates of adverse and major adverse events are consistent with what is anticipated in an otherwise healthy population, future device and procedural developments may facilitate improved outcomes in the future. (J Vase Surg 2011;53:1091-6.)”
“The present study demonstrates that serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, Kinesin family member 11 5-HT)-containing axons project to two sets of neurons in the dorsolateral pons that have been implicated in salt appetite regulation. These two neuronal groups are the pre-locus coeruleus (pre-LC) and a region in the parabrachial nucleus termed the external lateral-inner subdivision (PBel-inner).

Neurons in both regions constitutively express the transcription factor Forkhead protein2 (FoxP2), and become c-Fos activated after prolonged sodium depletion. They send extensive projections to the midbrain and forebrain, including a strong projection to the ventral tegmental area (VTA)-a reward processing site. The retrograde neuronal tracer cholera toxin beta-subunit (CTb) was injected into the VTA region; this was done to label the cell bodies of the pre-LC and PBel-inner neurons. After 1 week, the rats were killed and their brainstems processed by a triple-color immunofluorescence procedure. The purpose was to determine whether the CTb-labeled pre-LC and PBel-inner neurons, which also had FoxP2 immunoreactive nuclei, received close contacts from 5-HT axons. Neurons with these properties were found in both sites.

These new and integrative studies, along with those using a genet

These new and integrative studies, along with those using a genetic approach to understand color perception, raise some important questions. Most notably, how does selection shape both phenotypic and genetic variation, and how can we use this information to further understand check details the phenotypic diversity generated by evolutionary processes?”
“Epigenetic mechanisms have been widely implicated in synaptic plasticity and in memory consolidation, yet little is known about the role of epigenetic mechanisms in memory reconsolidation processes. In the present study, we systematically examine

the role of histone acetylation and DNA methylation in the reconsolidation of an amygdala-dependent Pavlovian fear memory. We first show that the acetylation of histone 3 (H3), but not histone 4 (H4), is regulated following auditory fear memory retrieval in the lateral nucleus of the amygdala (LA). We next show that histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition in the LA enhances both retrieval-induced histone acetylation and reconsolidation of an auditory fear

A-1331852 in vitro memory. Conversely, inhibition of DNA methytransferase (DNMT) activity in the LA significantly impairs both retrieval-related H3 acetylation and fear memory reconsolidation. The effects of HDAC and DNMT inhibitors on fear memory reconsolidation were observed to be time-limited and were not evident in the absence of memory reactivation. Further, memories lost following DNMT inhibition were not observed to be vulnerable to spontaneous recovery, reinstatement, or to a shift in testing context, suggesting that memory impairment DOCK10 was not the result of facilitated extinction. Finally, pretreatment with the HDAC inhibitor was observed to rescue the reconsolidation deficit induced by the DNMT inhibitor. These findings collectively suggest that histone acetylation and DNA methylation are critical for reconsolidation of fear memories in the LA.”

Individuals with a family history of depression may be more likely to develop depression due to an innate vulnerability of their serotonergic system. However, even though serotonergic vulnerability may constitute a risk factor in the development of depression, it does not seem to be sufficient to cause a depressive episode. Based on previous data, it is suggested that stress may be a mediating factor.

Objectives This study examined the role of serotonin (5-HT) in stress coping in individuals with or without a family history of depression.

Materials and methods Nineteen healthy first-degree relatives of depressive patients (FH+) and 19 healthy controls without a family history of depression (FH-) were tested in a double-blind placebo-controlled design for affective processing under acute stress exposure, following acute tryptophan depletion (ATD) or placebo.

Meanwhile, extracellular concentration of HVA increased up to 10

Meanwhile, extracellular concentration of HVA increased up to 10 times in approximately 1/3 of the animals of both groups. Scorpion venoms seem to exert a small but important central effect. More studies in this field are necessary because they may be useful in developing new strategies to reduce the

damage caused by scorpion stings. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Increasing evidence points to the importance of aberrant O-glycosylated immunoglobulin A1 (IgA1) in the pathogenesis of IgA PF477736 ic50 nephropathy (IgAN), a disease widely considered to be a polygenic disorder. We earlier found that haplotypes in two key glycosyltransferase genes, C1GALT1 and ST6GALNAC2, were associated with susceptibility to IgAN. Here we measured the genetic interaction of variants in C1GALT1 and ST6GALNAC2 by applying FAMHAP software to analyze haplotype-haplotype interaction in IgAN.

As confirmation, we also used a novel divergence-based multi-locus algorithm (DBMA) approach to determine interactions between single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Haplotype-haplotype combinations in C1GALT1 and ST6GALNAC2 were significantly associated with a predisposition for IgAN and with the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of patients. Analogously, results from DBMA found a five-locus combination, two in ST6GALNAC2 and three in C1GALT1, which was associated with IgAN predisposition, selleck PRKACG eGFR,

and renal outcome of patients with IgAN. In addition, patients with a high risk had significantly more exposed N-acetylgalactosamine on their IgA1 than did patients with a lower risk of developing this disease. Our findings suggest that potential genetic interactions of C1GALT1 and ST6GALNAC2 variants influence IgA1 O-glycosylation, disease predisposition, and disease severity, and may contribute to the polygenic nature of IgAN. Kidney International (2009) 76, 190-198; doi: 10.1038/ki.2009.99; published online 8 April 2009″
“Several studies have reported that reproductive hormones can alter baseline sleep-wake states, however, no studies in mice have examined whether reproductive hormone replacement in adult females and males influences sleep. In this study, we determined whether androgen replacement in males and estrogen replacement in females alter sleep-wake amount and sleep rebound after extended wakefulness. The gonads from adult male and female C57BL/6J mice were removed and animals were implanted with continuous release hormone or placebo pellets. Male mice received testosterone and females received 17 beta-estradiol. Recording electrodes were implanted to monitor sleep-wake states under baseline conditions and in response to 6 h of sleep deprivation. During baseline recording estradiol-treated females exhibited a reduction in NREM sleep amount that was predominant during the dark phase.