Feeding experiments with these transgenic N. tabacum plants demonstrated that silencing of NICTABA expression enhances the larval performance of the generalist pest insect Spodoptera littoralis. In a second transgenic approach, www.selleckchem.com/products/EX-527.html NICTABA was ectopically expressed in the wild diploid tobacco Nicotiana attenuata, a species that lacks a functional NICTABA gene. When these transgenic N. attenuata plants were
used in feeding experiments with S. littoralis larvae, a clear reduction in mass gain and significantly slower development were observed. In addition, feeding experiments with the Solanaceae specialist, Manduca sexta, provided further evidence that NICTABA exerts clear entomotoxic effects on Lepidopteran larvae.”
“Study Design. Literature review.
Objective. The objective of this article is to examine current intraoperative electromyography (EMG) neurophysiologic monitoring methods and their application in minimally invasive techniques. We will also discuss the recent application of EMG and its anatomic implications to the minimally GANT61 invasive lateral transpsoas
approach to the spine.
Summary of Background Data. Minimally invasive techniques require that the same goals of surgery be achieved, with the hope of decreased morbidity to the patient. Unlike standard open procedures, direct visualization of the anatomy is decreased. To increase the safety of minimally invasive spine surgery, neurophysiological monitoring techniques have been developed.
Methods. Review of the literature was performed using the National Center for Biotechnology Information databases using PUBMED/MEDLINE.
All articles in the English language discussing the use of intraoperative EMG monitoring and minimally invasive spine surgery were reviewed. The role of EMG monitoring https://www.selleckchem.com/products/jib-04.html in special reference to the minimally invasive lateral transpsoas approach is also described.
Results. In total, 76 articles were identified that discussed the role of neuromonitoring in spine surgery. The majority of articles on EMG and spine surgery discuss the use of intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IOM) for safe and accurate pedicle screw placement. In general, there is a paucity of literature that pertains to intraoperative EMG neuromonitoring and minimally invasive spine surgery. Recently, EMG has been used during minimally invasive lateral transpsoas approach to the lumbar spine for interbody fusion. The addition of EMG to the lateral approach has contributed to decrease the complication rate from 30% to less than 1%.
Conclusion. In minimally invasive approaches to the spine, the use of EMG IOM might provide additional safety, such as percutaneous pedicle screw placement, where visualization is limited compared with conventional open procedures.