Functional outcomes were assessed

using the Urogenital Di

Functional outcomes were assessed

using the Urogenital Distress Inventory, Defecatory Distress Inventory, and the Incontinence Impact Questionnaire preoperatively and at 6 months postoperatively. The Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to test differences between related samples.

Results Forty-nine women underwent laparoscopic sacrocolpopexy. The objective success rate in the apical compartment was 98%, subjective success rate was 79%. One mesh exposure (2%) was found. One conversion was necessary due to injury to the ileum.

Conclusions Laparoscopic sacrocolpopexy with bone anchor fixation is a safe and efficacious treatment for apical compartment prolapse. It provides excellent apical support and good functional outcome 6 months

“We review evidence showing a right-hemispheric Crenigacestat mw click here dominance for visuo-spatial processing and representation in humans. Accordingly, visual disorganization symptoms (intuitively related to remapping impairments) are observed in both neglect and constructional apraxia. More specifically, we review findings from the intervening saccade paradigm in humans-and present additional original data-which suggest a specific role of the asymmetrical network at the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) in the right hemisphere in visual remapping: following damage to the right dorsal posterior parietal cortex (PPC) as well as part of the corpus callosum connecting the PPC to the frontal lobes, patient OK in a double-step saccadic task exhibited an impairment when the second saccade had to be directed rightward. This singular and lateralized deficit cannot result solely from the patient’s cortical lesion and, therefore, we propose that it is due to his callosal lesion that may specifically interrupt the interhemispheric transfer of information necessary to execute accurate rightward saccades towards a remapped target location. This suggests a specialized right-hemispheric network for visuo-spatial remapping that subsequently transfers target location information to downstream planning regions, which are symmetrically organized.”

Arabidopsis, resistance to the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea is conferred by ethylene via poorly understood mechanisms. Metabolomic approaches compared the responses of the wild-type, the ethylene-insensitive mutant etr1-1, Selleckchem MK-8931 which showed increased susceptibility, and the constitutively active ethylene mutants ctr1-1 and eto2 both exhibited decreased susceptibility to B. cinerea. Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy demonstrated reproducible biochemical differences between treatments and genotypes. To identify discriminatory mass-to-charge ratios (m/z) associated with resistance, discriminant function analysis was employed on spectra derived from direct injection electrospray ionisation-mass spectrometry on the derived principal components of these data.

Methods: Leaving the temporal bone largely intact, a window is op

Methods: Leaving the temporal bone largely intact, a window is opened in the bony vestibule overlying the mouse utricle. The entire temporal bone is then placed into culture media. Utricles were cultured in situ for several days with minimal damage to the epithelium. The utricles are then fixed in situ, removed from the temporal bone, and processed. A standardized aminoglycoside-induced hair cell damage protocol was developed.

Results: Mature mouse utricles maintained hair cell numbers for 3 days in culture. Exposure to neomycin resulted in significant dose-dependent

hair cell toxicity (p < 0.0001, 1-way analysis of variance). Exposure to the protective drug tacrine resulted in significant protection against neomycin (p <

0.05, 3-way analysis of variance).

Conclusion: The “”in-bone” technique is a reliable Nepicastat order and atraumatic method for culturing PU-H71 mature mouse utricles and studying hair cell death and protection. It is easily mastered and can make in vitro study of hair cells accessible to more research groups.”
“Ovarian cancer is a leading cause of cancer death among women in the United States and it has the highest mortality rate of all gynecologic cancers. Internationally, there is a five-fold variation in incidence and mortality of ovarian cancer, which suggests a role for environmental factors, including diet. Nitrate and nitrite are found in various food items and they are precursors of N-nitroso compounds, which are known carcinogens in animal models. We evaluated dietary nitrate and nitrite intake and epithelial ovarian cancer in the National Institutes of Health (NIH)-AARP Diet and Health Study, including 151 316 women aged 50-71 years at the time of the baseline questionnaire in 1995-1996. The nitrate and nitrite intake was assessed Compound C nmr using a 124-item validated food frequency questionnaire.

Through 31 December 2006, 709 incident epithelial ovarian cancer cases with complete dietary information were identified. Using Cox proportional hazards regression to estimate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), women in the highest intake quintile of dietary nitrate had a 31% increased risk (95% CI: 1.01-1.68) of epithelial ovarian cancer, compared with those in the lowest intake quintile. Although there was no association for total dietary nitrite, those in the highest intake category of animal sources of nitrite had a 34% increased risk (95% CI: 1.05-1.69) of ovarian cancer. There were no clear differences in risk by histologic subtype of ovarian cancer. Our findings suggest that a role of dietary nitrate and nitrite in ovarian cancer risk should be followed in other large cohort studies. European Journal of Cancer Prevention 21:65-72 (C) 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health vertical bar Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

“BackgroundClozapine is reserved for overcoming treatment

“BackgroundClozapine is reserved for overcoming treatment resistance in schizophrenia. Malignancy is common in schizophrenia; however, there is limited evidence available on continuing clozapine with chemotherapy, with both having hematological adverse effects.

ObjectiveTo report a case on the use of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) in conjunction with

clozapine and chemotherapy.

MethodsWe searched PubMed for any available information on the use of granulocyte G-CSF see more with clozapine and chemotherapy. We report the case of a patient with schizophrenia who developed B-cell lymphoma and was treated with chemotherapy consisting of CHOP regimen, rituximab, and methotrexate. He was continued on clozapine and G-CSF.

ResultsWe did not find any reports on G-CSF use in conjunction with clozapine and chemotherapy. We found case reports and a case series on the use of G-CSF in clozapine rechallenge with clozapine-induced

agranulocytosis with mixed results. In our patient on clozapine, the white blood cell counts reduced by chemotherapy, were successfully replenished with the use of filgrastim, a G-CSF.

ConclusionsWith risks of psychosis relapse and exacerbation with discontinuing clozapine, the addition of G-CSF could be a useful aid in replenishing white ARN-509 cell counts lost to chemotherapy whilst continuing clozapine. However, further study is needed on this combination. Copyright (c) 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.”
“The abbreviated impactor measurement concept is a potential improvement to the labor-intensive full-resolution cascade impactor

methodology for inhaler aerosol aerodynamic particle size distribution (APSD) measurement GSK1838705A by virtue of being simpler and therefore quicker to execute. At the same time, improved measurement precision should be possible by eliminating stages upon which little or no drug mass is collected. Although several designs of abbreviated impactor systems have been developed in recent years, experimental work is lacking to validate the technique with aerosols produced by currently available inhalers. In part 1 of this two-part article that focuses on aerosols produced by pressurized metered dose inhalers (pMDIs), the evaluation of two abbreviated impactor systems (Copley fast screening Andersen impactor and Trudell fast screening Andersen impactor), based on the full-resolution eight-stage Andersen nonviable cascade impactor (ACI) operating principle, is reported with a formulation producing dry particles. The purpose was to investigate the potential for non-ideal collection behavior associated with particle bounce in relation to internal losses to surfaces from which particles containing active pharmaceutical ingredient are not normally recovered.

Out of 41 genes related to ABA biosynthesis and inactivation 19 w

Out of 41 genes related to ABA biosynthesis and inactivation 19 were found to be differentially regulated under drought stress in both flag leaves and developing seed during seed filling. Transcripts of plastid-located enzymes are regulated similarly in flag leaf and seed under terminal drought whereas transcripts of cytosolic enzymes are differentially regulated in the two tissues. Detailed information on the expression of defined gene family members is supplemented by measurements of ABA and its degradation and Vorinostat price conjugation products, respectively. Under drought stress, flag leaves in particular contain high concentrations of

both ABA and the ABA degradation products phaseic acid (PA) and diphaseic acid (DPA); whereas, in seeds, besides ABA, DPA was mainly found. The measurements also revealed a positive correlation between ABA level and starch content in developing seeds for the following reasons: (i) genes of the ABA controlled SnRK2.6 and RCAR/PP2C-mediated signal transduction pathway to the ABF transcription factor HvABI5 are activated in the developing grain under drought, (ii) novel ABA- and dehydration-responsive cis-elements have been found in the promoters of key genes of starch biosynthesis (HvSUS1, HvAGP-L1) and degradation (HvBAM1) and these transcripts/activity are prominently induced in developing seeds during

12 and 16 DAF, (iii) spraying of fluridone (an ABA biosynthesis inhibitor) to drought-stressed plants results in severely impaired starch content and thousand grain weight of mature seeds.”
“Rifai K, Pischke S, Agne C, Rosenau J, Klempnauer

SRT1720 cell line JL, Manns MP. High rate of unperceived hearing loss in patients after liver transplantation. Abstract: Aim: We recently published the high frequency of perceived hearing impairment in adults after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). To obtain objective data in addition Selleck LCL161 to the questionnaires, audiometric data of 70 patients post-OLT were analyzed. Methods: Hearing tests were obtained from 70 patients who were in follow-up 6.5 +/- 4.3 yr after OLT. Thirty-eight of these patients (53%) reported the development of a hearing problem post-OLT, while 14 patients already noticed hearing loss prior to OLT (21%). Eighteen patients did not report any hearing problems (26%). Results: Audiometry was within the normal range only in five patients (7%). Signs of mild or moderate hearing loss were found in 12 (17%) and 28 patients (40%), respectively. In 25 patients, audiometry revealed even severe hearing loss (36%). In 86% of patients, hearing loss was bilateral affecting all frequency areas in 63%. Of the 18 patients without subjective hearing impairment, moderate or severe hearing loss was found in 50% of audiometries. Mean maximal hearing loss was -62 +/- 30 dB with worse results in patients reporting hearing problems (p < 0.03).

“Objectives: Orofacial clefts are major human birth defect

“Objectives: Orofacial clefts are major human birth defects with complex etiology.

Previous studies have proposed Transforming growth factor – beta 3 (TGF-beta 3) gene as a key player in contributing to non-syndromic cleft lip and palate, however none of the studies have yet included Indian population. Hence this study was designed to detect TGF-beta 3 gene polymorphism in nonsyndromic cleft lip and palate patients from Indian population which is genetically distinct from DMXAA order previously studied populations.

Study Design: Peripheral blood samples of forty non-syndromic cleft lip and palate patients and forty unaffected individuals were collected for a case – control study design. Ethical clearance from the institutional review board and informed consent from all subjects was obtained. DNA extracted from the cases and controls was amplified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with TGF-beta 3 specific primers. The obtained fragments were sequenced and TGF-beta 3 gene polymorphisms were assessed based on the number of CA repeats.

Results: Chi-square test was used to compare the case and control groups. Results showed a significant difference in the number of CA repeats between the case and the control groups (p=0.01).

Conclusion: This study confirms the crucial role of TGF-beta 3 in the fusion of palatal shelves

selleck chemicals llc during development and further, provides novel evidence of TGF-beta 3 gene polymorphism in the etiology of nonsyndromic cleft lip and palate in Indian subpopulation.”
“Four novel taxoid analogs were conversionally synthesized from the C(19)-diterpenoid alkaloid deltaline, and their cytotoxic activities were evaluated against a small panel of cancer cell lines.”
“Voltage-gated calcium channels play an important role in many physiological and pathological ML323 solubility dmso processes. Accumulating studies suggest that the T-type calcium channel is a potential target for the treatment of various neurological disorders, such as epilepsy, insomnia, and neuropathic pain. Here, we highlight recent advances in our understanding of T-type calcium channel regulation and their

implications for tremor disorders. Several T-type calcium channel blockers effectively suppressed experimental tremors that have been suggested to originate from either the cerebellum or basal ganglia. Among T-type calcium channel blockers that have been used clinically, the anti-tremor efficacy of zonisamide garnered our attention. Based on both basic and clinical studies, the possibility is emerging that T-type calcium channel blockers that transit into the central nervous system may have therapeutic potentials for tremor disorders.”
“Objectives: The goal of this retrospective study was to determine the prevalence of pulp stones in a Turkish population. Any possible associations between pulp stones and gender, tooth type and dental arch were also evaluated.

In the endometrium from women with unexplained infertility and im

In the endometrium from women with unexplained infertility and implantation failure after IVF, MMP-2 and TIMP-3 expression were significantly decreased when compared with the fertile group (P < 0.05 and P <= 0.001 respectively). In addition,

a marked decrease was observed in the expression of VCAM-1 in women with unexplained infertility. These results suggest that the expression of,gelatinase A (MMP-2), TIMP-3 and VCAM-1, at least at the transcriptional level, might be regulated by common factors and signalling Belnacasan inhibitor pathways. The present study adds new and important data in this field and highlights the complex preparation of the endometrium for implantation at the molecular level.”
“Recently, novel intracorporeal esophagojejunostomy

using a linear stapler after laparoscopic total gastrectomy (LTG) was reported and termed as the overlap method. In this study, we evaluated the feasibility and safety of the overlap method for esophagojejunostomy or esophagogastrostomy after LTG or laparoscopic proximal gastrectomy (LPG), respectively.

Twenty-five patients underwent anastomosis using a linear stapler during esophagojejunostomy and esophagogastrostomy after LTG and LPG, respectively. Clinicopathological data and surgical outcomes were evaluated.

The average surgical duration for LTG was 236.8 min compared with 224.1 min for LPG. Postoperative complications were observed in four patients (16.0%); these included a wound infection, an intestinal obstruction, an afferent loop syndrome, and a reflux symptom. Pim inhibitor The average postoperative hospital stay of the patients was 12.5 days. There was no case of conversion to open surgery, anastomotic leakage or stenosis, or mortality.

The overlap method for esophagojejunostomy or esophagogastrostomy after LTG or LPG is safe and feasible and does not require an additional minilaparotomy, which may result in less pain and favorable cosmetic outcomes.”
“A best evidence topic was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was, should the practising interventional

cardiologist use drug-eluting stents (DESs) or bare-metal stents (BMSs) when undertaking primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in diabetic patients. The relevant outcomes that were used to determine the answer to this question included: in-stent restenosis, target vessel revascularization (TVR), mortality, myocardial infarction and in-stent thrombosis. The OVID Medline database was used to carry out the reported search for abstracts of relevant journal articles. Altogether 102 papers were found, of which 7 represented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The authors, journal, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes and results of these papers are tabulated. From the evidence available, we conclude that in-stent restenosis is less likely to occur over a follow-up of at least 6 months if a DES is used instead of a BMS.

CONCLUSION: Establishing DNAR orders is a demanding task Reachin

CONCLUSION: Establishing DNAR orders is a demanding task. Reaching a consensus is of crucial importance in guaranteeing teamwork and good patient care. Communication and negotiation skills, professional and personal life experience and empathy for patients and colleagues are pivotal. Therefore, leadership by experienced senior physicians and nurses is needed and great efforts should be made with regard to multidisciplinary education.”
“Background: Acute infectious diarrhea is a major cause of childhood morbidity and economic burden for families. We evaluate the clinical, microbiologic, and immunologic effects of probiotics in acute infectious diarrhea.

Methods: Children (n = 304) aged 3 months to 6 years hospitalized

for acute diarrhea were randomized to receive Bio-three (a mixture of Bacillus mesentericus, Enterococcus faecalis, and Clostridium butyricum) or placebo orally 3 times daily for 7 days. Fecal samples were homogenized for bacterial Culture and blood cells were isolated for cell Culture and cytokine analysis. This study is registered (NCT00463190).

Results: The mean duration of diarrhea after start of therapy was 60.1 hours in the probiotics group versus 86.3 hours in the placebo group (P = 0.003). Hospital stay was shorter in the probiotics group than in the placebo group (P = 0.009). Counts of Bifidobacteria and Lactobacillus species were elevated in stool culture of the probiotics

(Bio-three) group. G418 molecular weight IL-10 was increased in the serum A-1331852 solubility dmso and supernatants of cell culture in the probiotics group, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha values were down-regulated. Interferon-gamma and IL-12 were mildly elevated in the probiotics group, compared with the placebo group.

Conclusions: This probiotics mixture reduced the severity

of diarrhea and length of hospital stay in children with acute diarrhea. In addition to restoring beneficial intestinal flora, probiotics may enhance host protective immunity quell as down-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and up-regulation of anti-inflammatory cytokines.”
“Background: Urban malaria is a major health priority for civilian and militaries populations. A preliminary entomologic study has been conducted in 2006-2007, in the French military camps of the two mains towns of Gabon: Libreville and Port-Gentil. The aim was to assess the malaria transmission risk for troops.

Methods: Mosquitoes sampled by human landing collection were identified morphologically and by molecular methods. The Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite (CSP) indexes were measured by ELISA, and the entomological inoculation rates (EIR) were calculated for both areas. Molecular assessments of pyrethroid knock down (kdr) resistance and of insensitive acetylcholinesterase resistance were conducted.

Results: In Libreville, Anopheles gambiae s.s. S form was the only specie of the An. gambiae complex present and was responsible of 9.4 bites per person per night.

Methods: A total of 1176 oncology patients participated in the st

Methods: A total of 1176 oncology patients participated in the study. Majority had breast cancer. 58.4% of the patients had

no formal education; 10.7 and 9.5% of patients had college or graduate education respectively. Two out of every three patients lived greater than 200 km from hospital or clinic. One half of patients rented a phone to call.

Results: At 24 months, 97.6% (1132 patients) had sustained their follow-up appointments as against 19.2% (42 patients) who did not receive the phone intervention. 72.8% (14 102 calls) were to discuss illness/treatment. 14% of the calls were rated as emergency by the oncologist. 86.2% of patients found the use of mobile phone convenient/excellent/cheap. 97.6% found the use of the phone worthwhile and preferred the phone to traveling long distance to hospital/ clinic. Also the patients felt that they had not NSC 19893 been forgotten by their doctors and were been taken care of outside

the hospital/clinic.

Conclusions: Low resource countries faced with the burden of cancer care, poor patient follow-up and poor psychosocial support Immunology & Inflammation inhibitor can cash in on this to overcome the persistent problem of poor communication in their healthcare delivery. The potential is enormous to enhance the use of mobile phones in novel ways: developing helpline numbers that can be called for cancer information from prevention to treatment to palliative care. The ability to reach out by mobile phone to a reliable source for medical information about cancer is something that the international community, having experience with helplines, should undertake with colleagues in Africa, who are experimenting with the mobile phone potential. Copyright (C) 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.”
“Study Design. A proof of concept case study.

Objective. To introduce and evaluate a method for identifying what constitutes a minimal clinically important difference (MCID) in the SF-36 Physical Function scale at the patient level.

Summary Selleck ON-01910 of Background Data. MCID

has become increasingly important to researchers interested in evaluating patient care. Over the last 30 years, an array of approaches for assessing MCID has evolved with little consensus on which approach applies in any given situation.

Methods. Three approaches for estimating standard errors of measurement (s(e)) and a 30% change approach for establishing MCID were evaluated for the physical function (PF) scale with SPORT patients in the intervertebral disc herniations cohort. MCIDs for each s(e) approach were then developed based on (1) these standard errors and (2) clinically relevant factors including: (a) baseline PF score and (b) acceptable risk for type I error.

Results. Intervertebral disc herniations patients (N = 996) identified from the SPORT database met inclusion criteria. The s(e) for the classic test theory (CTT)-based test level approach was 9.66.

Nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared by in situ gelation technique f

Nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared by in situ gelation technique followed by labeling with fluorescein diacetate. Comparative studies on mucoadhesion were done with these thiolated chitosan NPs and unmodified chitosan NPs (control). The obtained nanoparticles displayed a mean diameter of 164.2 +/- 6.9 nm and a zeta potential of 21.5 +/- 5 mV. In an in vitro adhesion study, unhydrated thiolated NPs adhered strongly to freshly excised porcine small intestine, which was more than threefold increase compared to the control. In contrast, in the presence of FK866 ic50 various vehicles (PEG 300, miglyol

840, PEG 6000, cremophor EL, and caprylic triglyceride), the mucoadhesive properties of thiolated NPs were comparatively weak. Thiolated NPs suspended in caprylic triglyceride, for example, had a percent mucoadhesion of 22.50 +/- 5.35% on the mucosa. Furthermore, results from in vivo mucoadhesion studies revealed that the dry form of nanoparticles exhibits the strongest mucoadhesion, followed by nanoparticles suspended in PEG 300, miglyol, and 100 mM phosphate buffer, in that order. Three hours after administration, the gastrointestinal

residence time of the dry form of thiolated NPs was up to 3.6-fold prolonged. These findings should contribute to the design of highly effective oral mucoadhesive nanoparticulate drug delivery systems.”
“Study Design. Case report.

Objective. The diagnosis and surgical Selisistat research buy management of a patient with a traumatic bilateral dislocation of the lumbosacral junction (L5-S1) without facet or pars interarticularis fracture is presented with

a thorough review of the existing literature.

Summary of Background Data. Lumbar fracture-dislocations have been widely reported. However, only five cases of lumbosacral junction dislocation without a fracture have been previously reported.

Methods. A 23-year-old patient was involved in a high-energy occupational injury and presented with complaints of back pain and inability to ambulate. Neurological assessment confirmed adequate motor strength (4+/5 bilaterally), normal perianal and lower extremity sensation, and urinary retention (postvoid residual: 1000 mL). Imaging studies revealed bilateral L5-S1 facet dislocation GSK2245840 in vivo (bilateral jumped facets) without articulating processes or pars interarticularis fractures. Three-column ligamentous injury was confirmed on magnetic resonance imaging with complete tear of the ligamentum flavum, anterior and posterior longitudinal ligaments, interspinous and supraspinous ligaments, and avulsion of the L5 spinous process. The patient underwent bilateral facetectomies, diskectomy, laminectomies, and reduction of slippage with interbody and posterolateral transpedicular instrumented fusion.

Results. At 1-year follow-up, the patient reported mild back pain well controlled with naproxen. He continued to report good improvement in his daily function.


Methods In the study, 64-slice CT was used to evaluate 36 patien

Methods. In the study, 64-slice CT was used to evaluate 36 patients who had undergone coronary 17DMAG mw artery bypass graft surgery and had a clinical indication for angiographic graft assessment. The diagnostic accuracy of CT for identifying significant lesions in grafts and native coronary arteries was determined and compared with that of invasive

coronary angiography.

Results. Of the 103 grafts studied (49 arterial and 54 venous), 96 (93.2%) could be visualized by angiography and 98 (95.1%) by CT. The sensitivity and specificity of CT for detecting significant lesions in grafts were 100% (30/30) and 97% (64/66), respectively, and the positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) were 94% and 100%, respectively. For non-revascularized coronary arteries (258 segments), the sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV were 94%, 95%, 80% and 99%,

respectively, and for distal vessels, 86%, 97%, 67% and 99%, respectively.

Conclusions. The diagnostic accuracy of 64-slice CT for evaluating both coronary grafts and native coronary arteries was high.”
“Case Description-A 7-year-old Quarter Horse gelding used for unsanctioned racing was examined because of fever and anorexia.

Clinical Findings-Physical examination revealed fever, tachycardia, and tachypnea. Results of a CBC indicated anemia and mild thrombocytopenia. PP2 cost Results of microscopic examination of a blood smear indicated piroplasms in erythrocytes, consistent with Babesia spp. Regulatory authorities Selleckchem CH5183284 were contacted, and results of serologic testing at the National Veterinary Services Laboratories confirmed acute Babesia equi infection.

Treatment and Outcome-Equids on the home premises of the index horse were placed

under quarantine. Those equids were tested for piroplasmosis, and 6 of 63 horses had positive results for B equi. Another horse that had previously been housed on the index premises also had positive results for B equi. Competent tick vectors for piroplasmosis organisms were not identified. All 8 horses with piroplasmosis were Quarter Horses that participated in unsanctioned racing and were trained by the same person. Two of the horses were illegally removed from the index premises; these 2 horses and the other horse with piroplasmosis that was previously housed on the index premises could not be found. The other 5 horses with piroplasmosis were euthanized. Investigators concluded that transmission of B equi among horses was most likely iatrogenic.

Relevance-The United States has been considered piroplasmosis free. However, veterinarians should consider piroplasmosis in horses with signalments and clinical signs similar to those of the index horse of this report. Regulatory authorities should be contacted regarding horses in which piroplasmosis is suspected. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2013;242:992-996)”
“Background: Folic acid can prevent up to 70% of neural tube defects (NTDs) if taken before pregnancy.