, 2014 and Safranyik and Carroll, 2006). As Alfaro et al. (2014) relate, phenotypic plasticity (the capacity of a genotype to express different phenotypes in selleck chemical different environments; de Jong, 2005), the ability to adapt genetically, and seed and pollen mobility, are all important attributes in responding to climate change events as well as to other human environmental impacts such
as pollution (Aitken et al., 2008 and Karnosky et al., 1998). High extant genetic diversity and the enormous quantity of seed (each potentially a different genotype) produced by out-crossed parent trees support adaptive responses to change (Petit and Hampe, 2006). The speed at which environments alter in some geographic regions may however be greater than the ability of trees to cope (Jump and Penuelas, 2005). Then, human-mediated responses such as the facilitated
translocation of germplasm and breeding may be required, supported by the high genetic diversity in adaptive traits that is often found within trees’ range-wide distributions (Aitken and Whitlock, 2013 and Rehfeldt et al., 2014). Although the need for forest management practices to adjust to climate change may seem clear to scientists, practical foresters sometimes question this (Milad et al., 2013). Of more concern to practitioners, for example, may be forest loss due to commercial agriculture and illegal (or otherwise unplanned) logging (Guariguata et al., 2012). In this context, more effective than ‘stand alone’ climate-related measures
will be management interventions that are good practice under ‘business SRT1720 as usual’ scenarios. To convince forest managers to engage more actively, they need to be presented with good science-based and economically-costed estimates of the risks and benefits of inaction versus action (Joyce and Rehfeldt, 2013). Gemcitabine Alfaro et al.’s review calls for greater recognition of the role of genetic diversity in promoting resilience (e.g., the economic value of composite provenancing; Bosselmann et al., 2008), moves to improve our understanding of the underlying mechanisms and role of epigenetic effects in responding to climate change; and the development and application of straightforward guidelines for germplasm transfers, where appropriate (Rehfeldt et al., 2014). In the seventh and final review of this special issue, Pritchard et al. (2014) discuss ex situ conservation measures for trees, their integration with in situ approaches, and the particular roles of botanic gardens in conservation. Botanic gardens have participated widely in the collection and storage of tree seed, pollen and herbarium specimens, and in the establishment of living collections in vitro and in arboreta ( BGCI, 2014 and MSB, 2014). They have, however, moved far beyond their traditional role in ex situ conservation and have been widely involved in forest inventory, biological characterisation and threat mapping initiatives that support in situ conservation, as well as in the design of in situ reserves.