3B) Adenoviral delivery had no significant effect on the resting

3B). Adenoviral delivery had no significant effect on the resting cells [[25]]. The complementary experiment targeting endogenous FK228 chemical structure FOXO3a in MDDCs by

short interfering RNA (siRNA) duplexes resulted in upregulation of IFN-β mRNA expression (Supporting Information Fig. 5). Next, we examined if FOXO3-mediated inhibition of IFN transcription was due to its antagonizing effect on contributing regulatory factors. Both IFN-β and IFN-λ1 genes are regulated by NF-κB and IRF factors [[25, 28]]. Using NF-κB-luc gene-reporter construct, we found that, consistent with the published data [[15]], FOXO3 inhibited LPS-induced activation of NF-κB (Fig. 4A). In addition, it also inhibited the activity of the ISRE-luc gene-reporter construct, driven by tandem IRF-binding elements (Fig. 4B), suggesting that FOXO3 may regulate more inflammatory pathways than initially described. A direct effect of FOXO3 on IRF signaling was confirmed by the ability of FOXO3 to inhibit IRF3/7-induced activation of a luciferase-reporter driven by the IFN-β promoter (Fig. 4C). The mechanism by which FOXO3 antagonizes NF-κB remains unclear. FOXO3 was implicated in regulation of NF-κB

inhibitors, IκBs [[11, 15]], with signaling pathway inhibition of FOXO3 resulting in attenuated expression of IL-8 in LPS-treated intestinal epithelia [[29]]. It has also been proposed that FOXO3 prevents NF-κB translocation to the nucleus [[15]]. However, we observed no difference in LPS-induced p65/RelA translocation in 293-TLR4 cells transduced with an adenovirus expressing FOXO3 protein (Supporting Information Fig. 7A). Moreover, FOXO3 had no effect on expression of RelA or IRF3 mRNA in MDDCs (data not shown). Another possibility is the sequestration of Amylase active NF-κB complexes, as described for FOXO4 [[11]]. Indeed, complex formation between HA-tagged FOXO3 and FLAG-tagged p65/RelA and IRF3 were detected in 293-TLR4 cells ectopically expressing

the aforementioned proteins (Supporting Information Fig. 7B), suggesting that FOXO3 may inhibit NF-κB and IRF-driven gene transcription via protein–protein interactions, acting as a co-repressor or blocking the sites needed for DNA binding or signal transmission. To further examine these possibilities, the recruitment of ectopically expressed p65/RELA to the endogenous IFN-β promoter was analyzed in 293-TLR4 cells by ChIP and demonstrated a noticeable reduction in the presence of ectopically expressed FOXO3 (Fig. 4D). Thus, the sequestration of p65/RelA by FOXO3 can thwart its recruitment to the target promoters. Moreover, the recruitment of polymerase II to the IFN-β promoter, which reflects on the rate of gene transcription, was blocked in the presence of FOXO3 (Fig. 4E). In summary, our data indicate that FOXO3-mediated inhibition of the p65/RelA-driven gene transcription is likely to be via interfering with p65/RELA DNA-binding to the target promoters.

New investigative tools such as gene expression profiling have be

New investigative tools such as gene expression profiling have begun to be applied to the problem of predicting vaccine response [2]. Most of these approaches have assayed vaccine-induced changes in gene expression in the PBMC compartment, a bellwether of changes at distant vaccine sites. Two studies have shown that changes in the expression of small numbers of genes in PBMC gene expression profiles a few days after vaccination predict the subsequent magnitude of the immune response measured several weeks later [3, 4]. These studies suggest that gene expression profiles from PBMC samples in vaccinated subjects can selleck inhibitor provide predictors of the

vaccine response. Such approaches would be especially useful both as tools to identify new biological features associated with vaccine response, and as correlates of immunity for the development of new vaccines. However there are two significant challenges to developing gene expression based predictors of clinical outcome following vaccination. First, the extent of biological change in PBMCs caused by direct interaction with the vaccine and PBMCs would be expected to be small. Although live attenuated vaccines such as those developed against yellow fever (YF-17D) are known to replicate

systemically and induce readily detectable interferon responses [4-6], nonreplicating subunit vaccines such as those against influenza would be expected to have a much smaller effect GDC-0068 on the transcriptional profile of PBMCs. Thus the selection of individual genes that are strongly associated with response to vaccination can be difficult. The second challenge is that the biological meaning of gene expression based predictors is often hard to determine [3, 4]. One reason for this is that the analytical approaches to identify predictive genes are often different from those used to discover biological mechanisms evident in gene expression data. Predictive genes are selected on statistical rather than biological grounds [7], which tends to divorce the identity of the predictive genes from an understanding

of their role in vaccine Abiraterone price biology [8]. To address these limitations, we applied an approach to developing predictors of vaccine outcome from PBMC gene expression profiles following vaccination that has been used in other domains, e.g. stratifying cancer patients, but is novel to immunology. Rather than building a predictive model based on single differentially expressed genes, we used sets of coordinately regulated, biologically informative gene sets as predictive features in individual samples [9, 10]. As a source of gene sets, we use a compendium of signatures extracted from the published literature and from expert curation [11]. These signatures represent phenotypes of defined cell states and biological perturbations, providing specific biological contexts with which to interpret the predictive models.

Analogously, Irf8 mutation only affects CD8α+ DCs in spleen, alth

Analogously, Irf8 mutation only affects CD8α+ DCs in spleen, although it is now widely agreed upon that both CD8α+ DCs and CD8α− DCs are mostly derived from the same set of canonical DC precursors 1, 4. The hypothesis put forward by Luche et al. that CD8α+ tDCs develop via a canonical DC developmental pathway is consistent with a recent BMS-777607 order fate mapping study of T-cell progenitors assessing the history of Il7r expression 13. In this study, Schlenner et al. showed that the vast majority of

ETPs (∼85%) has a history of Il7r expression, suggesting lymphoid commitment prior to thymus seeding. In contrast, thymic myeloid cells and DCs (except pDCs) were mostly of non-lymphoid origin. In addition, Schlenner et al. demonstrated that even ETPs lacking a history of Il7r expression were unable to generate myeloid cells upon intrathymic transfer. Thus, together with the present study of Luche et al. two independent lines of evidence now indicate that T cells and CD8α+ tDCs are of separate origins. How can these recent data be reconciled see more with earlier findings suggesting that ETPs (or earlier T-cell precursors) are the primary source of CD8α+ tDCs? Elucidation of lineage potential has been shown to be massively dependent on assay conditions.

In particular, in vitro approaches or transplantation into irradiated hosts do not necessarily reflect developmental processes occurring in the steady state 16, although such analyses are clearly of merit when assessing lineage relationships.

Furthermore, progressive subfractionation of precursor populations has revealed a striking heterogeneity of apparently homogeneous populations 11. Thymic DCs have been proposed to develop in a coordinated fashion with thymocytes, displaying similar kinetics of expansion and contraction 8, 9. Although this may be considered indirect evidence for a common origin, it is also possible that environmental cues, such as periodic opening of progenitor niches, might equally apply to independent precursor populations. In contrast heptaminol to CD8α+ DCs from spleen, CD8α+ tDCs carry DHJH rearrangements, indicating a lymphoid history for these cells 5. However, DHJH rearrangements in CD8α+ tDCs remain to be analysed on the single-cell level and it may well be possible that only a minor fraction of CD8α+ tDCs display these rearrangements. In this context, one might speculate that DCs with a history of Il7r expression correspond to this fraction. Is a model of CD8α+ tDC generation via two pathways, a major pathway following canonical DC differentiation and a minor pathway originating from T-cell precursors (Fig. 1), compatible with the complete lack of DC potential of ETPs upon intrathymic transfer? On the one hand, developing DCs might branch off from a T-cell precursor that is more immature than ETPs, such as a yet elusive thymus seeding progenitor.

Total hospital admission rate was 1 48 per patient year with hosp

Total hospital admission rate was 1.48 per patient year with hospital days totalling 8.54 days per patient year. The three most common reasons for first admission were cardiac (33%), infection (18%) and gastrointestinal (12%). Predictors of future Torin 1 hospitalization included the first dialysis occurring in hospital (hazard ratios (HR) 2.1, 95% CI 1.4–3.3, P = 0.0005) and the use of a CVC at first haemodialysis (HR 2.6, CI 1.6–4.4, P < 0.0001). Hospitalizations are common in older incident haemodialysis patients. Access preparation and overall burden of illness leading to the initial hospitalization appear to play a role. Identification of additional factors

associated with hospitalization will allow for focused interventions to reduce hospitalization rates and increase the value of care. “
“Aim:  SM22α (transgelin) has been focused upon as a player in the process of phenotypic changes of types of cells. The SM22α expression in the rat anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) nephritis model and differences from an established Neratinib manufacturer phenotypic marker

for the myofibroblast, α-smooth muscle actin (αSMA), were investigated. Methods:  The rat kidney tissues were processed for histological studies, immunohistochemical and immunoelectronmicroscopy analyses on days 0, 7, 28, 42 and 56 after injection of rabbit anti-GBM serum for the disease induction. Results:  Immunohistochemistry with anti-SM22α antibodies (Ab) revealed that kidneys of the nephritic rats on day 7 expressed SM22α in podocytes, crescentic cells and epithelial cells of Bowman’s capsule. After 28 days, SM22α was also expressed in peritubular interstitial cells. Double immunofluorescence with anti-SM22α Ab and anti-αSMA Ab showed

that SM22α was preferentially expressed in podocytes, whereas αSMA was positive in mesangial cells on day 7. After day 28, both molecules became positive in peritubular interstitial cells. Conclusion:  SM22α was expressed in epithelial cells selleck chemicals of inflamed glomeruli in the early phase, and then also in peritubular interstitial cells in the later phase of anti-GBM nephritis model. SM22α presented unique kinetics of expression distinct from αSMA. “
“Immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) is the most common glomerulonephritis with various histological and clinical phenotypes. N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) exposure plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of IgAN. The aim of the current study is to investigate whether GalNAc exposure of serum IgA1 was associated with clinical and pathological manifestation of IgAN. Sera from 199 patients with biopsy proved IgAN were collected. Clinical and pathological manifestations were collected. Biotinylated Helix aspersa were used in ELISA to examine GalNAc exposure on IgA1 molecules. Patients were divided into two groups according to the GalNAc exposure rate less or more than 0.4.

The enrichment objects can include various ‘toys’ of different

The enrichment objects can include various ‘toys’ of different PD-0332991 supplier shapes, sizes, colours, textures and smells, as well as specific facilitators of physical activity, such as tunnels, ladders, ropes and running wheels. This enhancement of sensory, cognitive and motor

activity is thought to stimulate neural activity across a range of central (and peripheral) systems, and a variety of subsequent cellular and molecular changes, which will be discussed below. Environmental enrichment is a relative term, defined in the context of ‘standard housing’, which varies between laboratories. Standard housing for laboratory rodents often includes minimal objects (apart from bedding and nesting material) added to the Galunisertib datasheet home cage and might therefore be considered a form of sensorimotor deprivation [1]. This may impact on the ‘environmental construct validity’ of standard-housed preclinical models of brain disorders and have implications for clinical translation, as discussed recently [2,3]. Nevertheless, it is the difference between ‘enriched’ and ‘standard’ conditions which is crucial for such laboratory animal studies, allowing the experimenter to define EE-induced changes to brain structure and function, as well as molecular and cellular correlates. The first description of environmental enrichment of experimental animals

was by the pioneering neuroscientist aminophylline Donald Hebb, involving free-roaming rats in a home environment, relative to standard-housed caged controls [4]. Since Hebb’s first description, a wide variety of EE experiments have been performed using laboratory mice and rats. These EE effects on wild-type rodents have been reviewed extensively [1,5,6] and therefore will only be discussed briefly in the present article. However, key aspects of the reproducible effects of EE on wild-type rodents include cognitive enhancement, enhanced synaptic plasticity, adult hippocampal neurogenesis, synaptogenesis and modulation of gene expression [7]. Furthermore, following the

review of EE effects in animal models of brain disorders, I will briefly discuss potential mechanisms suggested by studies in wild-type rodents. The first evidence that EE could be beneficial in a genetic model of a brain disorder was provided using Huntington’s disease transgenic mice [8], as discussed in a later section. This was followed up with EE studies in animal models other neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease [9], which will be reviewed in detail below. Furthermore, EE has also been found to induce beneficial effects in animal models of a range of other CNS disorders, including depression [10–12], epilepsy [13–15], stroke [16–18], multiple sclerosis [19], addiction [20,21], schizophrenia [22], autism spectrum disorders [23–25] and other neurodevelopmental disorders [26,27].

Contraindications: active bacterial infections (urinary tract, lu

Contraindications: active bacterial infections (urinary tract, lung, hepatitis), systemic mycosis in the past 6 months; viral infections: herpes zoster or herpes simplex infections with acute reactivations in the past 3 months; HIV-infection and subsequent opportunistic infections in the past 3 months; other chronic or recurrent viral Decitabine molecular weight or bacterial infections, malignant tumours,

organ transplantation with ongoing immunosuppression, pregnancy and lactation. Fingolimod (FTY 720) has a unique immunoregulatory mechanism of action. Following its in-vivo phosphorylation, FTY720 becomes FTY720-phosphate(p), a non-selective, high-affinity antagonist of sphingosine 1-phosphate receptors (S1P-R). FTY720-p binds directly to S1P-Rs on lymphocytes, BVD-523 nmr precipitating internalization and degradation of the receptor. This functional antagonism impairs the egress of autoreactive lymphocytes from lymph nodes along an endogenous chemotactic S1P-gradient. FTY720-p also binds to S1P-Rs on endothelial cells of the lymph node, which impairs the transmigration of lymphocytes from the medullary parenchyma to draining regions of lymph nodes. Hence, fingolimod retains T cells and B cells in secondary lymphatic organs, causes a pronounced lymphopenia in the blood and thus

impairs invasion of lymphocytes into the inflamed CNS parenchyma. Fingolimod may also exert direct protective effects on parenchymal cells (neurones, oligodendrocytes) in the CNS. Preparations and administration: in the United States, fingolimod [63, 64] is approved for basic therapy, whereas in Europe fingolimod is approved for the escalation therapy of patients with RRMS. Fingolimod is administered orally at a dose of 0·5 mg once daily. Clinical trials: a Phase III clinical trial is currently being initiated Exoribonuclease to compare oral fingolimod (0·5 mg/day) to placebo in patients with CIDP (‘Evaluate efficacy and safety of fingolimod 0·5 mg orally once daily versus placebo in chronic

inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy patients’). Adverse effects, frequent: infections, headache, gastrointestinal disturbances, bradycardia, elevation of liver enzymes; infrequent: sinuatrial block and/or atrioventricular block I–II°, increased arterial blood pressure, macula oedema. Contraindications: immunodeficency, severe active infections, chronic active infections (hepatitis, tuberculosis), active malignancies, severe liver dysfunction, pregnancy and lactation. Alemtuzumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody binding specifically to the CD52 antigen on the surface of B, T and natural killer (NK) cells, as well as monocytes and macrophages. It depletes these immune cell types by inducing complement-mediated cell lysis. Currently, alemtuzumab is approved for the treatment of patients with chronic lymphatic leukaemia of the B cell type (B-CLL).

Like all leucocytes, T cells undergo a number of co-ordinated adh

Like all leucocytes, T cells undergo a number of co-ordinated adhesive interactions with the endothelium, assisted by the integrin-activating function of chemokine receptors, which allow their migration out of the blood stream (reviewed by Marelli-Berg et al.2). The sequential operation of adhesion and chemokine receptors during migration from blood to tissue has led to the proposal

of the multi-step model of transmigration,3 which now appears in every textbook. Co-ordinated migration of naïve and memory T cells is the key to effective immunity. While naïve T cells predominantly recirculate through secondary lymphoid tissue until they encounter antigen, primed T cells efficiently localize to antigen-rich lymphoid and R788 non-lymphoid tissue. In order to carry out efficient immune surveillance, effector/memory T cells are able to mount fast and effective responses upon re-challenge. These responses are targeted to the affected tissues by both inflammatory signals and the specific homing phenotype acquired by the T cells during activation and differentiation. While www.selleckchem.com/products/Temsirolimus.html a large number of molecular mediators and interactions guiding T-cell extravasation to both lymphoid and non-lymphoid tissue following priming have

been identified, relatively little is known about the molecular mechanisms regulating the targeted delivery of memory T cells to antigen-rich sites, their retention in these sites, their subsequent egression from them, and their trafficking patterns afterwards. We here summarize recent key observations addressing these issues (Fig. 1). Unlike naïve T lymphocytes, which constitutively traffic through lymphoid tissue, memory T cells are more diverse with respect to their migratory properties. Antigen-experienced T cells can be subdivided into central memory (TCM), effector memory (TEM) PIK3C2G and effector (TEFF) cell subsets based on distinct migratory and functional characteristics,4,5 although the real situation is more fuzzy. TCM cells retain expression of the lymph node (LN) homing receptors L-selectin and chemokine

(C-C motif) receptor 7 (CCR7), and, like naïve T cells, are well represented in all secondary lymphoid organs.6 TCM cells can also localize to peripheral tissues and sites of inflammation.4,7 In contrast, TEFF and TEM cell subsets are defined as CCR7-negative, and most of them are also L-selectin−/low.4,7 TEM cells are long-lived [interleukin-7 receptor-positive (IL-7R+)], while TEFF cells are mainly short-lived recently activated T cells. Both TEFF and TEM cells largely lack the ability to enter peripheral lymph nodes (PLNs) in the steady state and they home preferentially to non-lymphoid tissues. However, they can migrate into reactive lymph nodes to modulate the immune response in a chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 3 (CXCR3)- or P-selectin-dependent fashion.

It is possible that monocytes from HIV+ donors may have modified

It is possible that monocytes from HIV+ donors may have modified chemokine receptor expression that compensates for modified chemokine production. Freshly isolated monocytes from 18 healthy donors and 27 HIV+ donors were stained with antibodies reactive against CD14 and CD16 to identify monocyte subsets as CD14++ CD16− (traditional monocytes), CD14++ CD16+ (inflammatory monocytes) and CD14+ CD16++ (patrolling monocytes)[15]. Each subset was evaluated for expression

of CCR2 (MCP-1 receptor), CXCR2 (Gro-α receptor), CCR5 (β chemokine receptor) and CCR4 (MDC receptor). The expression of these receptors was clearly distinguishable between monocyte subsets. CXCR2, CCR2 and CCR4 expression was lower among CD14+ CD16++ patrolling monocytes, whereas, CCR5 expression was LBH589 cell line markedly increased in this subset compared with the other subsets (Fig. 5). Expression of chemokine receptors was mostly similar when comparing monocytes from HIV+ and HIV− donors with the exception of a significant reduction in CCR4 expression that was observed in CD14+ CD16++ patrolling monocyte subset from HIV+ donors. A trend towards lower CXCR2 expression was noted among CD14++ CD16−

traditional monocytes from HIV+ donors, which was not significantly different. The expression of chemokine receptors was not Selleck INCB024360 correlated with age, or current or nadir CD4 cell counts within our HIV+ population. We have previously shown that hBD-3 and Pam3CSK4 differentially induce expression of co-stimulatory molecules in the surface of monocytes such that hBD-3 induces expression of CD86 and CD80, whereas Pam3CSK4 only marginally affects CD86

expression and may even cause down-modulation of this molecule.[8] Our results from these studies suggest that Pam3CSK4 can induce next CD86 although the density of CD86 expression is not enhanced above background levels. As our previous studies demonstrated a dependence on IL-10 production for diminished CD86 induction by Pam3CSK4, it is possible that differences in the levels of IL-10 produced in these cultures could account for the differences between these studies and our previous observations.[8] In addition, we find that LL-37 induces increases in both percentages and density of CD86 expression in monocytes in the absence of CD80 induction. Interestingly, in most samples, CD86 induction is limited to a subset of monocytes after LL-37 stimulation, suggesting that some monocyte subsets may be more responsive to LL-37 than others. Further studies of monocyte subset responses may provide insight into this possibility. The significance of CD86 induction without CD80 induction by LL-37 is unknown as both of these molecules serve as co-stimulatory ligands for CD28.

In G93A mSOD1 mice [75], degeneration of the anterior


In G93A mSOD1 mice [75], degeneration of the anterior

horn neurones was noted early on in the disease process [110]. Ultrastructural studies showed membrane bound vacuoles originating from the degenerating mitochondria, via distension of the outer mitochondrial membrane, expansion of the IMS, preceding disintegration of the IMM [56]. The notion of a causal role of this mitochondrial dysmorphology in the pathogenesis of ALS has arisen, due to the observations that these defects occur at a presymptomatic stage in G37R and G93A mSOD1 mice [56]. Furthermore, at the onset of disease symptoms, the dominant pathological event in the ventral horn is a rapid increase in the number of vacuolated mitochondria, this website correlating with decline in muscle strength and preceding motor neuronal cell death [56,74,111,112]. It is postulated that this death is due to apoptosis, with the relative density of cytochrome c immunoreactivity noticeably reduced in the swollen mitochondria, suggestive of its pro-apoptotic release into the cytosol [56]. However, over-expression of wild-type SOD1 may also lead to vacuolation of mitochondria [113], and as mitochondrial vacuolation is not seen in all mSOD1 mouse models, it is important to consider whether more subtle disruption of mitochondrial morphology occurs. The initial cause of this mitochondrial

dysmorphology is unclear, although mSOD1 has been implicated in the process, with vacuolation of mitochondria correlating with accumulation of mSOD1 in the mitochondrial IMS of transgenic see more mice [113]. Furthermore, mSOD1 Mannose-binding protein-associated serine protease has been found to be present in only mildly swollen mitochondria, suggesting that the translocation of mSOD1 into the IMS may trigger vacuolation

of the mitochondria, possibly via dysfunctional interaction with mitochondrial chaperones, eliciting structural damage [56,114]. A fragmented network of motor neuronal mitochondria in the anterior horn of SALS patients is suggestive of defective fusion, or an increase in the levels of fission [49]. This is supported by investigation of cultured motor neurones derived from G93A mSOD1 transgenic mice; mitochondria were found to have a lower aspect ratio, suggestive of ‘rounding up’ of individual mitochondria [115]. Furthermore, investigation of a mSOD1 expressing NSC-34 cell line revealed fragmentation of the mitochondrial network alongside remodelling of the mitochondrial cristae [12,116]. Recent analysis of mitochondrial morphology in differentiated NSC-34 cells transfected with IMS-targeted mSOD1 revealed a significant decrease in mitochondrial length, indicative of fragmentation of the mitochondrial network in the presence of mSOD1 [109]. Thus, loss of mitochondrial fusion or an increase in mitochondrial fission may be a component of the pathogenic process in ALS.

When producing tempe bongkrek, the bacterial contamination can le

When producing tempe bongkrek, the bacterial contamination can lead to lethal food-related

intoxications caused by the respiratory toxin bongkrekic acid. To unveil the metabolic potential of the fungus-associated bacterium, we sequenced its genome, assigned secondary metabolite biosynthesis gene clusters and monitored the metabolic profile under various growth conditions. In addition to the bongkrekic acid biosynthesis gene cluster we found gene clusters coding for the biosynthesis of toxoflavin and a complex polyketide. The orphan polyketide synthase gene cluster was activated under conditions that emulate tempe production, which enabled isolation and structure elucidation of four members of the enacyloxin family of antibiotics, out of which one is new. Moreover, RO4929097 supplier we found that the fungus positively influences the growth of the bacteria and dramatically increases bongkrekic acid production in stationary culture, which inhibits the growth of the fungus. These results showcase the context-dependent formation of antifungal and antibacterial agents at the fungal-bacterial interface, which may also serve as a model for scenarios observed in mixed infections. Interactions between different microorganisms are of

utmost importance in nature. Besides their ecological relevance, they also affect LEE011 cost agriculture, medicine and biotechnology.[1-3] In many cases the interplay between the organisms is mediated by secreted natural products.[1] Some Mucorales are known to live in close association with bacteria, and it was shown before that these bacteria may contribute to the effect the fungi exert on other organisms including humans.[4] Whereas toxin-producing bacteria have not yet been implicated in the promotion of zygomycoses,[5, 6] they play a key role in the context of Ergoloid plant disease, agriculture and food processing. Surprisingly little is known about the microbial associations of Rhizopus microsporus var. oligosporus that is traditionally used to prepare fermented foods such as tempe or sufu.[7, 8] Various soaked or cooked vegetal substrates are inoculated

and fermented with the mould fungus to improve flavour, texture and nutritional value of the meat surrogates. The R. microsporus group consists of various taxa, which are associated with food fermentation, toxin production and even pathogenesis.[7, 9] A popular Southeast Asian dish is tempe bongkrek, which is produced by fermentation of coconut press cake with R. microsporus. However, its consumption has led to a number of severe and often lethal intoxications.[10] As a consequence the production of this national dish was officially prohibited by the Indonesian government.[11] It was found that the toxicity was due to a poison produced by bacteria that were contaminants of the fungal starter culture.[12] These bacteria, Burkholderia gladioli pv.