Nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared by in situ gelation technique followed by labeling with fluorescein diacetate. Comparative studies on mucoadhesion were done with these thiolated chitosan NPs and unmodified chitosan NPs (control). The obtained nanoparticles displayed a mean diameter of 164.2 +/- 6.9 nm and a zeta potential of 21.5 +/- 5 mV. In an in vitro adhesion study, unhydrated thiolated NPs adhered strongly to freshly excised porcine small intestine, which was more than threefold increase compared to the control. In contrast, in the presence of FK866 ic50 various vehicles (PEG 300, miglyol
840, PEG 6000, cremophor EL, and caprylic triglyceride), the mucoadhesive properties of thiolated NPs were comparatively weak. Thiolated NPs suspended in caprylic triglyceride, for example, had a percent mucoadhesion of 22.50 +/- 5.35% on the mucosa. Furthermore, results from in vivo mucoadhesion studies revealed that the dry form of nanoparticles exhibits the strongest mucoadhesion, followed by nanoparticles suspended in PEG 300, miglyol, and 100 mM phosphate buffer, in that order. Three hours after administration, the gastrointestinal
residence time of the dry form of thiolated NPs was up to 3.6-fold prolonged. These findings should contribute to the design of highly effective oral mucoadhesive nanoparticulate drug delivery systems.”
“Study Design. Case report.
Objective. The diagnosis and surgical Selisistat research buy management of a patient with a traumatic bilateral dislocation of the lumbosacral junction (L5-S1) without facet or pars interarticularis fracture is presented with
a thorough review of the existing literature.
Summary of Background Data. Lumbar fracture-dislocations have been widely reported. However, only five cases of lumbosacral junction dislocation without a fracture have been previously reported.
Methods. A 23-year-old patient was involved in a high-energy occupational injury and presented with complaints of back pain and inability to ambulate. Neurological assessment confirmed adequate motor strength (4+/5 bilaterally), normal perianal and lower extremity sensation, and urinary retention (postvoid residual: 1000 mL). Imaging studies revealed bilateral L5-S1 facet dislocation GSK2245840 in vivo (bilateral jumped facets) without articulating processes or pars interarticularis fractures. Three-column ligamentous injury was confirmed on magnetic resonance imaging with complete tear of the ligamentum flavum, anterior and posterior longitudinal ligaments, interspinous and supraspinous ligaments, and avulsion of the L5 spinous process. The patient underwent bilateral facetectomies, diskectomy, laminectomies, and reduction of slippage with interbody and posterolateral transpedicular instrumented fusion.
Results. At 1-year follow-up, the patient reported mild back pain well controlled with naproxen. He continued to report good improvement in his daily function.