Seed meal is a protein-rich by-product of vegetable oil extraction, which can either be used as an organic fertilizer, or converted to animal feed. However, conversion
off. curcas seed meal into animal feed is complicated by the presence of toxins, though plants producing “”edible”" or “”non-toxic”" seeds occur in Mexico. Toxins present in the seeds of J. curcas include phorbol esters and a type-I ribosome inactivating protein www.selleckchem.com/products/poziotinib-hm781-36b.html (curcin). Although the edible seeds off. curcas are known to lack phorbol esters, the curcin content of these seeds has not previously been studied. We analyzed the phorbol ester and curcin content of J. curcas seeds obtained from Mexico and Madagascar, and conclude that while phorbol esters are lacking in edible seeds, both types contain curcin. We also analyzed spatial distribution of these toxins in seeds. Phorbol-esters were most concentrated in the tegmen. Curcin was found in both the endosperm and tegmen. We conclude that seed toxicity in J. curcas is likely to be due
to a monogenic trait, which may be under maternal control. We also conducted AFLP analysis and conclude that genetic diversity is very limited in the Madagascan collection compared to the Mexican collection. (C) 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.”
“Spin transfer torque-based Ralimetinib inhibitor magnetic random access memory with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) provides better scalability and lower power consumption compared to those with in-plane anisotropy. Spin transfer torque switching in magnetoresistive
spin valves with PMA is investigated. The hard layer is made of (Co/Pd) multilayer, whereas the soft layer is a lamination of (CoFe/Pd) and (Co/Pd). By the insertion of an in-plane spin polarizer adjacent to the perpendicular anisotropy free layer, thus creating a modified-dual spin valve, a significant reduction of about 40% in the current density required for spin torque transfer switching was observed. By using a spin polarized current with different pulse widths down to 10 ns, the barrier energy E(B) in 100-nm-diameter devices was found to be reduced from 1.1 to 0.43 eV. Besides the reduction of switching current density in a device with PMA, the new SCH 900776 structure shows a clear increase in magnetization switching speed as revealed by micromagnetic simulation. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3540361]“
“Protease inhibitors from plants have been involved in defence mechanisms against pests and pathogens. Phytocystatins and trypsin/alpha-amylase inhibitors are two of the best characterized protease inhibitor families in plants. In barley, thirteen cystatins (HvCPI-1 to 13) and the BTI-CMe trypsin inhibitor have been previously studied. Their capacity to inhibit pest digestive proteases, and the negative in vivo effect caused by plants expressing these inhibitors on pests support the defence function of these proteins. Barley cystatins are also able to inhibit in vitro fungal growth.