That is, the maximum response is obtained when the radiation reac

That is, the maximum response is obtained when the radiation reaches the sensor perpendicularly (the sun at its zenith), while no response is obtained when the sun is on the horizon (an angle of incidence of 90��) and the response is half of the maximum when the incident radiation is at 60��. Therefore, it can be deduced from the definition that a pyranometer must have a ��directional�� response or, as it is usually termed, a cosine response to emphasise the fact that its response must ideally be analogous to the cosine function. The difference between the pyranometer’s real response and the ideal cosine response is termed cosine error [2,3].Pyranometers are widely used in meteorology, climatology, agriculture [4], solar energy studies [5] and building physics.

In photovoltaic solar installations they are normally mounted with the sensor surface in the plane of the panel. In spite of the interest in measuring solar radiation, the use of Brefeldin_A pyranometers is still not very widespread outside the field of research, probably due to their high cost.The element that characterises a pyranometer is the sensor it uses, which may be thermal (thermopile) or photovoltaic. Photovoltaic sensors are a cheap alternative, whose only advantage in principle over thermopiles in measuring radiation, aside from their price, is their response speed. Thus, while photodiode-based pyranometers have a response time of around 10 ��s [6], in those based on thermopiles, response time ranges between 1 and 10 s, thus making them less suitable for measuring very rapid changes in radiation.

The influence of temperature on pyranometer’s measurement is also well known. Although this influence exists, it is lower in thermopile pyranometers [1,7-10] than in photodiode devices [11-14].With regard to integrating a pyranometer into an instrumentation system (generally into any measuring device), there is a series of very important factors to take into consideration, namely: ease of connection, signal degradation due to the transmission process [15].In order to achieve the objective proposed in this work, designing and building a photodiode-based pyranometer [16] with similar characteristics to those of a thermopile-based device, also incorporating significant connection, measuring and programming utilities [17], the authors have analysed and corrected both the defects mentioned in literature and those observed during the testing of various commercial units. That is, the pyranometer developed has the following original features:Excellent cosine response guaranteed by both the level gauge (to guarantee horizontality), which is incorporated, and by the specifically designed solar radiation diffuser.

In trace-gas analysis of chemical species in the atmosphere, bes

In trace-gas analysis of chemical species in the atmosphere, besides sensitivity and selectivity the response time is of increasing interest for the real-time detection of temporal concentration changes. In order to achieve the necessary sensitivity and selectivity, the use of high-resolution laser techniques in IR and near-IR (NIR) fingerprint region is of special interest. The methodologies based on the photothermal techniques, mainly photoacoustic spectroscopy, have suitable characteristics for trace gas detection. Actually several laser-based methods have been reported because they are very sensitive [12�C14]. For instance, photoacoustic spectroscopy is widely used in the detection of several gases in the ppbv and sub-ppbv concentration range [15�C19].

A homemade CO2 laser photoacoustic spectrometer has been developed to monitor gas emissions of several sources [20]. A continuous wave CO2 infrared laser tunable over 80 different lines, between 9.2 and 10.6 ��m, has been employed at the emission line of 10P(16) as excitation source for sulfur hexafluoride gas detection [21�C23].With the recent development of quantum-cascade lasers (QCLs), compact solid-state radiation sources are available, covering the important infrared (IR) region with specific molecular absorption lines. In addition, spectral regions known as atmospheric windows can be selected in which water vapor has a very low absorption coefficient.

Another important advantage of QCLs in practical applications is that they work at near room temperature, Entinostat whereas diode lasers such as lead salt lasers, which emit in the fundamental IR region, have to be cryogenically cooled.

Recent Brefeldin_A applications of QCLs clearly indicate their potential as tunable light sources in the mid-infrared, especially between 3 and 13 ��m, with strong fundamental absorption bands. Current interest is based on the lack of other convenient coherent laser sources. In fact, it can be expected that QCLs will open new possibilities for real-time diagnostics of various molecular species in the 3�C5 ��m and 8�C13 ��m atmospheric windows [24].Pulsed quantum-cascade distributed-feedback (QC-DFB) lasers provide quasi room temperature operation, combined with high spectral selectivity and sensitivity, real-time measurement capabilities, robustness, and compactness. For this reason, QCLs are ideal for the development of compact trace gas analyzers that are also suitable for field measurements. In recent years the detection of a series of important trace gases has been demonstrated with these devices [24�C29].

ny possibility of wrong annotation the majority of the dif fer

ny possibility of wrong annotation the majority of the dif ferentially expressed genes, in particular those of major interest were sequenced. All data are deposited at the GEO server. Ontology Groups Classification and Molecular Pathways Building To classify and characterize the differentially expressed genes that resulted from the microarray analysis the Gene Ontology data annotation was used. In addition, the text mining program Pathway Stu dio 5. 0 was used for the identification of pathways linking the regulated genes. Downstream targets of the genes regulated 4 h after stress were looked for in the group of genes regulated 8 h after stress and upstream regulators of the latter in the former group. The main criteria applied for the final selection of the pathways were, 1.

the last step of the pathway has to indicate molecular synthesis expression so as to validate the expression change described on the microarray result, 2. confirmation of the annotation of the selected genes by sequencing and 3. validation of the literature references used by the program. In situ Hybridisation Dacomitinib 18 um thin cryostat sections prepared from frozen stored brains were thaw mounted on poly L Lysine coated slides, dried and kept at 80 C. UTP labelled riboprobes for amyloid b precursor protein and guanine nucleotide binding protein, alpha inhibiting 2 genes were prepared by in vitro transcription from corresponding cDNA clones. The sections were dried, fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde, washed in PBS and subjected to acetylation using 0. 25% acetic anhydride in 0. 1 M triethanolamine HCL, pH 8.

0. After subsequent dehydration in increasing concentra tions of ethanol, brain sections were saturated with 100 ul of hybridisation buffer containing 2. 5 �� 106 cpm 35 S labelled riboprobe. Brain sections were incubated overnight at 62 C or 58 C. Then, the sections were rinsed in 4�� SSC, treated with RNAse A and washed in increasingly strin gent SSC solutions at room temperature. Finally sections were washed in 0. 1�� SSC for 1 h at 67 C or 64 C and dehydrated through increasing con centrations of ethanol. Autoradiography was on Biomax MR film for 3 5 days. The autoradiographs were digitised, and relative expres sion levels were determined by computer assisted optical densitometry. The average value of 4 6 measurements was calculated from each animal.

Quantitative PCR A total of 200 ng of amplified RNA from the first ampli fication round of the microarray analysis was reverse transcribed with Superscript II using random hexamer primers according to the manufacturers protocol. For quality control, a small aliquot of each cDNA was analyzed on an agarose gel. parison. Relative gene expression was determined by the 2 CT method using the real PCR efficiency calcu lated from an external standard curve. Cp were normal ized to the housekeeping genes GAPDH, HPRT1, POLR2B or RPL13A Fold regulation values were calcu lated relative to the expression mean of basal mice. The calculation Cp Cp was

in activated microglia, while it inhibited ERK and NF ��B pathway

in activated microglia, while it inhibited ERK and NF ��B pathways in co cultured neurons and rat hippocampus. Possible e planations for the difference were as follows 1 in the co culture paradigm, neurons were directly stimulated by molecules released from pre treated microglia, but not directly by LPS and SCM 198, which were removed from the media before microglia neuron co culture. 2 Other studies have proved that ac tivated microglia upregulated p ERK with no change in total ERK in neurons and rodents brains and this eleva tion of p ERK was accompanied by neuronal dysfunc tions and cognitive impairments of animals, 3 Hence, elevation of p ERK in co cultured neurons and tissues was possibly an overall consequence of the inter actions between neurons and LPS or AB activated microglia.

Therefore, we concluded that SCM 198 could either directly protect neurons from AB1 40 to icity or indirectly protect neurons against synaptophysin loss and elevations of p tau, p ERK and p p65 of NF ��B via directly suppressing NF ��B and JNK pathways in acti vated microglia. GSK-3 Further investigations will be necessary to clarify how SCM 198 interacts with neurons and astrocytes. Several other transgenic AD models will be needed to further verify neuroprotective effects or unravel new potential mechanisms of SCM 198. Taken together, our study, for the first time, demonstrated that SCM 198 possessed considerable anti neuroinflammatory effect both in vitro and in vivo and therefore protected co cultured neurons and improved overall cognitive performances of rats.

Hence, our data may provide new insights into AD treat ment with SCM 198 in the near future. Conclusions In summary, this is the first time that SCM 198 was found to have considerable anti inflammatory effects in microglia and in AB1 40 injected SD rats, indicating its potential as a drug candidate for AD treatment in the future. SCM 198 may directly inhibit overactivated microglia, maintain their ramified morphology, decrease proinflammatory cytokines via NF ��B and JNK pathways and therefore indirectly protect co cultured neurons. Besides, when directly applied to neurons, SCM 198 decreased neuronal death and LDH leakage caused by AB1 40 stimulation. In vivo AB1 40 injection caused im pairments of spatial memory and microglial overactivation, which were reversed by SCM 198 at 30 mg kg and 60 mg kg.

In the chronic rat AD model, co administration of SCM 198 and DON resulted in better cognitive perfor mances of rats in the MWM test, indicating that SCM 198 could not only be used independently for AD treatment in the future, but that it could be used as an adjuvant to im prove the therapeutic effect of DON. Further investigations will be necessary to clarify how SCM 198 interacts with neurons and astrocytes. Several other transgenic AD models will be needed to further verify neuropro tective effects or unravel new potential mechanisms of SCM 198. Background EMMPRIN, also termed CD147 or M6 antigen, is a 58 kDa cel

In the first stage, the mammogram was filtered so that only suspi

In the first stage, the mammogram was filtered so that only suspicious MC candidates remained. To do so, a hybrid filter consisting of a wavelet filter, a top-hat filter, and 15 Laws filters was applied to alleviate the problem of low contrast between MCs and surrounding breast tissue. This filtering not only lessened the low contrast problem but also reduced the tremendous computation time because only high-frequency components remained for further processing. In the second stage, all candidates were examined by a knowledge-based classifier to reduce the number of false positives (FPs). Furthermore, the remaining candidates were classified by support vector machines (SVM) via a set of features after an automatic feature selection, in which the optimal parameter sets for SVM were also determined.

Finally, we clustered individual MCs to MCCs and marked the identified MCCs on the images as a result.The rest of this paper is organized as follows: Section 2 introduces our mammogram database and methods of pre-processing, filtering, feature extraction, automatic feature selection, training, and classification. Our experimental results are shown in Section 3. We then discuss our method and methods from other groups in Section 4. Finally, the conclusions are provided in Section 5.2.?Methods2.1. Datasets and Ground TruthFifty-two patients (cases) with clinical reports were collected, from which a total of 111 digital mammograms were acquired. The image gray-level resolution was 14-bit per pixel. Each patient had at least one craniocaudal (CC) view and one mediolateral oblique (MLO) view.

All the mammograms, which were representative images containing MCCs, were acquired from China Medical University Hospital. The patient mammograms were selected by two radiologists, who selected mammograms that they both agreed contained precisely recognizable MCs. Patients whose mammograms were not able to be identified consistently by these two radiologists were excluded. To establish ground truth, all mammogram readings were performed by these two experienced radiologists independently. One radiologist was a senior clinician who has worked in this area for over ten years. The other radiologist was young and has worked more than two years. In each mammogram, a rectangle (or some rectangles) was drawn to enclose the MCCs, and a point was manually marked in the center of each MC. The rectangles were drawn as small as possible to cover the MCCs. The manually identified Carfilzomib MCs were set as the gold standard used as the ground truth to which the automated results were compared.To make a statistical analysis, we used 2-fold cross-validation [22,23] to test our algorithm. The dataset was randomly separated into two subsets.

These sensor networks act as information infrastructures, helping

These sensor networks act as information infrastructures, helping to provide ubiquitous services by using the information from daily life [1�C3].Although many such wireless sensor networks (WSNs) seem to be successfully deployed and have evolved in many aspects, they continue to be networks with constrained resources in terms of limited power, memory, and computational capacities [4,5]. Power efficiency is the main concern in sensor networks; however, the Quality of Service (QoS) requirements also need to be satisfied [6]. In the study by Zhu et al., they mentioned that coverage is one of the measurements of WSN QoS and it is closely related to energy consumption [7]. In addition, nodes have limited communication capabilities, when a source node can only cover the area within its maximum transmission range [8].

Optical fiber, which has been developed for high-speed data transmission, has also been employed as a sensor for remote data monitoring of environmental conditions or physical properties [9�C11]. In optical fiber sensing systems, fiber sensor elements use light propagating along optical fibers to take measurements. For that reason, optical fiber sensors do not need secondary power supplies, although related data communications and measurement equipment may. Additionally, using optical fiber as a transmission medium allows higher speed and larger data communications.An optical fiber sensing system that could utilize the benefits that optical fiber offers to both data communications and sensing would likely resolve many existing issues.

This paper proposes two types of optical fiber sensing systems that use hetero-core spliced (HC) optical fiber sensors. These sensors can be easily manufactured by a simple cutting and fusion splicing process; they have been evaluated positively in previous research for their sensitivity and the high measurement precision [12�C15].In the review by Rathnayaka Drug_discovery and Potdar [16], transport protocols for WSNs are discussed. Due to the numerous requirements and constraints on WSNs, many standard network transport protocols such as User Datagram Protocol (UDP) and Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) are not appropriate.To monitor sensor conditions in the system, an existing internet-standard protocol which works in the application layer of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model is used. The objective of this study is to install multiple sensors into one transmission line, remotely manage them and differentiate the response from each sensor by using the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP).In Section 2 of this paper, details of the hetero-core optical fiber sensors, results from previous studies, and remaining issues are described.

In [16], Sparse PCA (SPCA) is used to select signature OES variab

In [16], Sparse PCA (SPCA) is used to select signature OES variables. In [17], Partial Least Squares (PLS), support vector machines, and rules ensemble methods are compared with each other for process yield prediction. Dimensionality of the input data is reduced using PLS and rules ensemble within the prediction process.A general feature of these previous applications of dimension reduction of OES data is that generic methods (e.g., PCA, SPCA, or use of summary statistics) are applied directly to the full set of input wavelength variables, without regard to the specific nature of the dataset and these methods can have difficulty in finally isolating important variables in the original variable space. For example, it is not possible to trace back to individual wavelength measurements at a certain time point when only summary statistics are the output of the method [15].

In PCA-based methods, every Principal Component (PC) is a linear combination of all original variables. This is a problem if quantification of the contribution by each variable to certain PCs is required [18]. SPCA is a possible solution to this problem [19], but the grouping effect (equal weights tend to be given to highly correlated variables) is a weakness, leading to difficulty in final variable selection [16].Other general dimension-reduction methods also have disadvantages for direct application to the problem at hand. Ensemble methods have been shown to be successful in identifying important variables in the original space [20], however ensemble learning methods (e.g.

, boosting, bagging [21], rules ensembles [20]) need to be supervised by knowledge of output variables, which in our case would be actual etch-rate measurements, which are normally not available. Other supervised learning methods are similarly unsuitable in the current context. Factor Analysis (FA) [22], projection pursuit [23], Artificial Neural Networks (ANN), and Independent Component Analysis (ICA) all have their own particular issues. In [24], a number of problems are highlighted for the FA method, where it is often possible to extract too few or too many factors and factor stability can be a concern. For projection pursuit [23], high computational int
Harmful algal blooms occur frequently in both freshwater and marine systems. Evidence suggests that algal blooms have increased during the past several decades [1,2].

Algal blooms affect food webs directly by altering them when the algal toxin is produced. Indirect effects of algal blooms include changes in the quality and quantity of food resources, oxygen stress through respiring algal cells or through decomposition, Drug_discovery and alterations of dominant algae affecting higher trophic levels. In addition, algae have been viewed as an alternative energy resource.

To overcome the performance degradation of finger-vein recognit

To overcome the performance degradation of finger-vein recognition, many previous studies have developed different enhancement methods for finger-vein images, some of which are compared with the proposed method in Table 1. Previous quality enhancement methods for finger-vein images can be classified into restoration-based and non-restoration-based methods [6].Table 1.Comparison of the proposed method and previous methods.For example, Yang et al. developed a restoration-based method that removes the optical blur from the camera lens and the skin scattering blur from the structure of the finger skin layers to transform a low-quality finger-vein image into a high-quality image [7]. They formulate the camera lens and skin scattering blurs by considering the optical characteristics of the skin layers using a Gaussian-based point spread function (PSF) model and a depth-PSF model.

Several restored images are obtained based on various skin surface depth parameters because it is not possible to correctly estimate the depth of the skin surface in the vein region. In addition, a linear superposition method is employed to conjoin the several restored images to produce a combined image. However, this method is limited because the processing time is increased by obtaining several restored images with various skin surface depth parameters. To eliminate the skin scattering blur in a finger-vein image, an optical model based on skin scattering and atmospheric scattering components has also been used for enhancing finger-vein images [8].

This approach is based on de-hazing and Drug_discovery the removal of skin scattering blur, which makes the vein patterns in a finger-vein image easier to distinguish. However, this method is limited because its performance can be affected by the detection of the scattering parameter. In addition, enhancement of the recognition accuracy was not discussed in this paper.Yang et al. proposed an enhancement method for finger-vein images based on scattering removal, Gabor filtering, and a multi-scale multiplication rule [9]. However, they assumed that the luminance of the surrounding environment would be constant during processing to facilitate scattering removal. In addition, the optimal parameters of the Gabor filter were designed in an elaborate manner based on the characteristics of the vein lines.

Therefore, the parameters need to be redesigned for vein images captured using different devices. By contrast, our proposed method uses a roughly designed Gabor filter, which has the advantage that its performance is not affected significantly by the different types of vein images (in this study, this was confirmed by tests using two finger-vein databases, which were collected with two different devices). In our method, performance enhancement is achieved using a combination of Gabor and Retinex filters based on a fuzzy system.

The major advantages of this magnet are its simplity and the rela

The major advantages of this magnet are its simplity and the relatively remote homogenenous spot. The static magnetic field B0 is parallel to its surface (along z axis in Figure 1) which allows employment of a very simple surface coil with good sensitivity. The size of the measurement spot results from the combination of B0 distribution, bandwidth of the excitation RF pulses, bandwidth of the receiver and parameters of the surface coil like size, shape and quality factor (Q).Figure 1.Schematic (a) and photo (b) of the three-magnet array. The centre of the upper surface of the magnet array corresponds to the position (0,0,0) in the coordinate system.In order to adjust and characterize the magnet, magnetic field measurements were undertaken employing a three axis Hall effect magnetic field probe (Lake-Shore Cryotronics Inc.

, OH, USA) and a computer controlled three axis plotter (Velmex Inc., MI, USA). Figure 2a plots the magnetic field magnitude as a function of distance from the centre of the magnet. The sensitive spot of the magnet array is 8 mm to 17 mm from the magnet surface. The proton resonance frequency at this position is 4.485 MHz. Figure 2b shows a contour plot of the magnetic field along the yz plane over the magnet (x = 0).Figure 2.(a) Plot of magnetic field magnitude B0 as a function of the distance from the centre of the magnet surface. The circled area indicates the sensitive spot position; (b) Contour plot of the magnetic field magnitude B0 in the yz plane. The field is reasonably …2.2. RF CoilA square spiral RF coil, 45 mm in length with 7 turns, fabricated on a 1.

2 mm thick printed circuit board (Figure 3a) was employed for the measurements since the RF field B1 is required GSK-3 to be perpendicular to the static magnetic field B0.The lead width was 1.5 mm and the spacing 1.27 mm. The resistance and inductance of the coil were 0.41 �� and 1.439 ��H, respectively. The loaded quality factor (QL), measured with the coil placed on the magnet was 30. The RF coil was tuned 4.485 MHz, which is the proton resonance frequency at the centre of the spot. The dead time of the coil is 35 us. The RF field above the coil, simulated employing the simulation software Maxwell 3D (Ansoft, Pittsburgh, PA, USA), is shown in Figure 3b. A 4.766 mm (3/16��) fiberglass spacer was placed between the coil and the magnet to assure a better use of the homogeneous spot of the magnet and the B1 of the coil. The distance from the RF coil upper surface to the sensitive spot is 2 mm to 11 mm.Figure 3.(a) Photo of the RF coil; (b) The simulated result of the normalized RF field distribution in the central perpendicular plane. The B1 field is perpendicular to the coil. y = 6 mm is the upper surface of the RF coil.2.3.

The marker disposition for the three compartment chest wall model

The marker disposition for the three compartment chest wall model is shown in Figure 1. The number of used markers is 89, 42 placed on the front and 47 on the back of the subject.Figure 1.89 marker model for respiratory acquisition. 42 markers are placed in front and 47 on the back of the subject.To measure the volume of chest wall compartments from surface markers we define: 1) the boundaries RC,p as extending from the clavicles to a line extending transversely around the thorax at the level of the xiphoid process (corresponding to the top of the area of the apposition of the diaphragm to the rib cage at end expiratory lung volume in sitting posture, confirmed by percussion); 2) the boundaries of RC,a as extending from this line to the costal margin anteriorly down from the xiphosternum, and to the level of the lowest point of the lower costal margin posteriorly; and 3) the boundaries of AB as extending caudally from the lower rib cage to the level of the anterior superior iliac crest.

The markers are placed circumferentially in seven horizontal rows between the clavicles and the anterior superior iliac spine. Along the horizontal rows the markers are arranged anteriorly and posteriorly in five vertical rows, and there was an additional bilateral row in the midaxillary line. The anatomical landmarks for the horizontal rows are: 1) the clavicular line; 2) the manubrio-sternal joint; 3) the nipples (~ 5 ribs); 4) the xiphoid process; 5) the lower costal margin (10th rib in the midaxillary line); 6) umbilicus; 7) anterior superior iliac spine.

The landmarks for the vertical rows are: 1) the midlines; 2) both anterior and posterior axillary lines; 3) the midpoint of the interval between the midline and the anterior axillary line, and the midpoint of the interval between the midline and Drug_discovery the posterior axillary line; 4) the midaxillary lines. An extra marker is added bilaterally at the midpoint between the xiphoid and the most lateral portion of the 10th rib to provide better detail of the costal margin; two markers are added in the region overlying the lung-apposed rib cage and in the corresponding posterior position.

This marker configuration has previously been validated in normal subjects, along with a sensitivity analysis which assesses accuracy in estimating change in lung volume as a function of marker number and position [5]. The solid representation of Dacomitinib the tricompartimental model as described by the X-Y-Z co-ordinates of each marker is shown in Figure 2. When compared with the gold standard (water sealed spirometer) the accuracy in the volume change measurements of the 89 markers model is very high, showing volume differences smaller than 5% [5].Figure 2.