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In: Mok DWS, Mok MC (eds) Cytokinins: chemistry,

In: Mok DWS, Mok MC (eds) Cytokinins: chemistry, activity and function. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 179–195 Sathish P, Withana N, Biswas M, Bryant C, Templeton K, Al-Wahb M, Smith-Espinoza C, Roche JR, Elborough KM, Phillips JR (2007)

Transcriptome analysis reveals season-specific rbcS gene expression profiles in diploid perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). Plant Biotechnol J 5(1):146–161CrossRefPubMed GSK3235025 Schmulling T, Schäfer S, Romanov G (1997) Cytokinins as regulators of gene expression. Physiol Plant 100:505–519CrossRef Soitama AJ, Piippo M, Allahverdiyea Y, Battchikova N, Aro EM (2008) Light has a specific role in modulating Arabidopsis gene expression at low temperature. BMC Plant Biol 8(1):13CrossRef Surpin M, Larkin RM, Chory J (2002) Signal transduction between the chloroplast and the nucleus. Plant Cell 14:S327–S328PubMed Synková H, Van Loven K, Pospišilová J, Valcke R (1999) Photosynthesis of transgenic Pssu-ipt tobacco. J Plant Physiol 155:173–182 Synková H, Pechova R, Valcke R (2003) Changes in chloropast ultrastructure

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RT-PCR data by geometric averaging of multiple internal control genes. Genome Biol 3(7):RESEARCH0034.1–0034.11 Volkov RA, Panchuk II, Schôffl F (2003) Heat-stress-dependency and developmental modulation of gene expression: the potential of house-keeping genes as internal standards in mRNA expression profiling using real-time RT-PCR. J Exp Bot 54(391):2343–2349CrossRefPubMed Werner T, Motyka V, Strnad M, Schmülling T (2001) Regulation of plant growth by cytokinin. Plant Biol 98(18):10487–10492 Werner T, Holst K, Pörs Y, Guivarc′h A, Mustroph A, Chrique D, Grimm B, Schmülling T (2008) Cytokinin deficiency causes distinct changes of sink and source parameters in tobacco shoots and roots. J Exp Bot 59:2659–2672. doi:10.​1093/​jxb/​ern134 Ya OZ, Selivankina SY, Yamburenko MV, Zubkova NK, Kulaeva ON, Kusnetsov VV (2005) Cytokinins activate transcription of chloroplast genes.

The uptake of phosphorus by brucite during hydrothermal circulati

The uptake of phosphorus by brucite during hydrothermal circulation has lead Bradley et al. (2009) to propose that the utilization of glycosyl head groups instead of phosphatidyl head groups by bacteria constitutes a strategy for conservation of scarce phosphorus. Condensed KPT-330 order phosphates have stronger binding energies to hydroxide minerals like brucite than orthophosphate (Arrhenius et al. 1997), in the same way as polynucleotides bind stronger than mononucleotides (Holm et al. 1993). This means that the condensed phosphates have the potential to (outcompete orthophosphate and) concentrate on the mineral surfaces. Inorganic pyro- and polyphosphates are used for energy transfer

and storage in many microorganisms, and it has been proposed that the chemical energy stored in this type of inorganic molecules has been used by primitive forms of life on the early Earth (Baltscheffsky and Baltscheffsky 1994). Despite the general scarcity of phosphorus on Earth, such compounds could have been produced in the prebiotic world by several possible pathways. Prebiotic Pyrophosphate Formation Wheat et al. (1996) have estimated that ridge-axis and ridge-flank hydrothermal processes Fedratinib supplier in the ocean floor in combination today remove about 50% of the global input of dissolved phosphorus from rivers into oceanic crust. Bodeï et al. (2008) have shown that phosphate is

strongly enriched as authigenic phases in the basal sedimentary layer on top of the basaltic basement, the source of phosphorus being primarily the basalts underneath. Under standard temperature conditions (25°C), apatite (Ca-orthophosphate) forms as a single phase at pH 9 or higher in a sterile seawater medium. However, in the pH range 7–9 primarily the mineral whitlockite (Ca18Mg2H2(PO4)14 is formed under the same temperature conditions (Gedulin and Arrhenius 1994). Preformed crystals of apatite placed in a neutral or slightly alkaline sterile solution with the Mg/Ca ratio of seawater

convert to whitlockite. Abbona and Franchini-Angela (1990) have also shown that amorphous calcium phosphate converts to whitlockite above the Mg/Ca molar ratio 0.8. It has C-X-C chemokine receptor type 7 (CXCR-7) long been known that hydrogen containing phosphates like whitlockite and newberyite at heating react to form pyrophosphate and water (Sales et al. 1993; Gedulin and Arrhenius 1994). Low water activity in the system promotes the pyrophosphate formation (Russell and Hall 1997). The phosphate condensation is due to the protonation of the phosphate. At heating, the hydrogen reacts with one of the oxygen ligands of the phosphorus and leaves as water. As a response, the structure of the orthophosphate rearranges to form one or more anhydride P-O-P bonds (Arrhenius et al. 1997), i.e. the backbone of condensed phosphates like pyrophosphate. A seemingly alternative pathway for pyrophosphate formation would be oxidation of the phosphide mineral schreibersite (Fe,Ni)3P.

Oncol Rep 2011, 25:1297–1306 PubMedCrossRef 37 Lao VV, Grady WM:

Oncol Rep 2011, 25:1297–1306.PubMedCrossRef 37. Lao VV, Grady WM: Epigenetics and colorectal cancer. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 2011, 8:686–700.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef 38. Noda H, Kato Y, Yoshikawa H, Arai M, Togashi K, Nagai H, Konishi F, Miki Y: Frequent involvement of ras-signalling pathways in both polypoid-type

and flat-type early-stage colorectal cancers. J Exp Clin Cancer Res 2006, 25(2):235–242.PubMed 39. Casadio V, Molinari C, Calistri D, Tebaldi M, Gunelli R, Serra L, Falcini F, Zingaretti C, Silvestrini R, Amadori D, Zoli W: INK1197 DNA Methylation profiles as predictors of recurrence in non muscle invasive bladder cancer: an MS-MLPA approach. J Exp Clin Cancer see more Res 2013, 32:94.PubMed Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Authors’ contributions CR and DC conceived and designed the study. MZ, GDM, MMT and GF carried out the immunohistochemistry assay and performed the pyrosequencing and MS-MLPA analyses.

ACG and LS were responsible for patient recruitment. LS and MP interpreted the immunohistochemistry results. ES, CZ and CM performed the statistical analyses. CR, DC, GDM, MZ, GF and ES drafted the manuscript. DA and WZ reviewed the manuscript for important intellectual content. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Introduction The Snail superfamily of transcription factors includes Snail1, Slug,

and Scratch proteins, all of which share a SNAG domain and at least four functional zinc fingers [1]. Snail1 has four zinc fingers, located from amino acids 154 to 259, whereas Scratch and Slug each have five [2,3]. The comparison of these zinc-finger sequences has further subdivided the superfamily into Snail and Scratch families, with Slug acting as a subfamily within the Snail grouping. The Snail superfamily has been implicated in various processes relating to cell differentiation and survival [1]. First characterized in Drosophila melanogaster in 1984, Snail1 also has well-documented homologs in Xenopus, C. elegans, mice, chicks, and humans [4,5]. In humans, Snail1 is expressed in the kidney, thyroid, adrenal gland, lungs, Glutathione peroxidase placenta, lymph nodes, heart, brain, liver, and skeletal muscle tissues [6,7]. Snail1 is a C2H2 zinc-finger protein composed of 264 amino acids, with a molecular weight of 29.1 kDa [7] (Figure 1). The SNAI1 gene, which is 2.0 kb and contains 3 exons, has been mapped to chromosome 20q.13.2 between markers D20S886 and D20S109 [7]. A Snail1 retrogene (SNAI1P) exists on human chromosome 2 [8]. Figure 1 Amino acid sequences: human and mouse. This figure provides the human Snail1 amino acid sequence. The second representation of the sequence has important features such as phosphorylation sites and zinc fingers highlighted in various colors.

BMJ 342:d2040 doi:10 ​1136/​bmj ​d2040 PubMedCrossRef 9 Bolland

BMJ 342:d2040. doi:10.​1136/​bmj.​d2040 PubMedCrossRef 9. Bolland MJ, Grey A, Gamble GD, Reid IR (2011) Calcium and vitamin D supplements and health outcomes: a reanalysis of the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) limited-access dataset. Am J Clin Nutr 94:1144–1149PubMedCrossRef 10. Chlebowski RT, Pettinger M, Kooperberg C (2011) Caution in reinterpreting the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) calcium and vitamin MI-503 nmr D trial breast cancer results. Am J Clin Nutr. doi:3945/​ajcn.​111.​027664 11. Iso H, Stampfer MJ, Manson JE, Rexrode

K, Hennekens CH, Colditz GA, Speizer FE, Willett WC (1999) Prospective study of calcium, potassium and magnesium intake and risk of stroke in women. Stroke 30:1772–1779PubMedCrossRef 12. Bostick RM, Kushi LH, Wu Y, Meyer KA, Sellers TA, Folsom AR (1999) Relation of calcium, vitamin D and dairy food intake to ischemic heart

disease mortality among postmenopausal women. Am J Epidemiol 149:151–161PubMedCrossRef 13. Al-Delaimy WK, Rimm E, Willett WC, Stampfer MJ, Hu FB (2003) A prospective study of calcium intake from diet and supplements and risk of ishemic heart disease among men. Am J Clin Nutr 77:814–818PubMed 14. Ascherio A, Rimm EB, Hernán MA, Giovannucci EL, Kawachi I, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC (1998) Intake of potassium, magnesium, calcium and fiber and risk of stroke among US men. Circulation 98:1198–1204PubMedCrossRef 15. Kuanrong L, Kaaks R, Linseisen J, Rohrmann S (2011) Associations of dietary calcium intake and calcium supplementation with VRT752271 myocardial infarction and stroke risk and overall cardiovascular mortality in the Heidelberg cohort of the European Prospective Protirelin Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study (EPIC-Heidelberg). Heart 98:920–925 16. Neuhouser ML (2003) Dietary supplement use by American women: challenges in assessing patterns of use, motives

and costs. J Nutr 133:1992S–1996SPubMed 17. Neuhouser ML, Patterson RE, Levy L (1999) Motivations for using vitamin and mineral supplements. J Am Diet Assoc 99:851–854PubMedCrossRef 18. Prentice RL, Langer R, Stefanick M, Howard B, Pettinger M, Anderson G, Barad D, Curb D, Kotchen J, Kuller L, Limacher M, Wactawski-Wende J, for the Women’s Health Initiative Investigators (2005) Combined postmenopausal hormone therapy and cardiovascular disease: toward resolving the discrepancy between Women’s Health Initiative Clinical Trial and Observational Study Results. Am J Epidemiol 162:404–414PubMedCrossRef 19. Prentice RL, Langer R, Stefanick ML, Howard BV, Pettinger M, Anderson G, Barad D, Curb JD, Kotchen J, Kuller L, Limacher M, Wactawski-Wende J, for the Women’s Health Initiative Investigators (2006) Combined analysis of Women’s Health Initiative observational and clinical trial data on postmenopausal hormone treatment and cardiovascular disease.

Conversely, other studies have shown that high-dose supplements o

Conversely, other studies have shown that high-dose supplements of zinc can increase the risk of prostate cancer[5]. Thus, the role of dietary zinc in the predisposition to prostate cancer requires further study. The relationship between dietary zinc and prostate cancer

likely stems from the vital role that zinc plays in prostate function. Zinc is known to accumulate in the prostate, and this gland typically harbors the highest concentration of zinc in the body[6]. This is because the secretory cells of the prostate require high levels of zinc to inhibit the enzyme m-aconitase, which normally functions to oxidize citrate during the Krebs cycle. Because citrate is a principle component buy P505-15 of seminal fluid, prostate secretory cells do not complete the oxidation of citrate in the mitochondria and the zinc-mediated inhibition of m-aconitase is crucial for the accumulation of citrate in these cells, and thus the subsequent secretion of citrate into seminal fluid[7]. The accumulation of zinc in the prostate epithelium is accomplished by the zinc transporter ZIP1, which is

highly expressed in normal prostate tissue[8]. Because zinc is thus antagonistic to the synthesis of ATP in the cells of the prostate gland, it is not surprising that both ZIP1 expression and the accumulation of zinc are markedly attenuated in a cancerous prostate [9]. [10]. Indeed, NVP-BSK805 mw ZIP1 is considered a prostate tumor MYO10 suppressor as

the inhibition of its function is requisite for malignant transformation, and prostatic zinc levels have shown an inverse relationship with tumorigenicity [11]. Thus, the restoration of zinc levels in prostate cancer cells is a logical strategy for clinical treatment. Further, zinc has been shown to be required for mitochondrial apoptogenesis in prostate cells in vitro [12], and infusions of moderate doses of zinc reliably lead to apoptosis of prostate cancer cell lines [13]. This has led to the hypothesis that clinical administration of zinc could be an effective chemotherapeutic for prostate cancer. However, studies of zinc dietary supplementation for cancer prevention have had mixed results [14, 15]. Recently, vascular delivery of zinc was evaluated as a potential treatment in a mouse model of prostate cancer [6]. Although an increase in apoptosis was observed in the prostate cancer xenografts of the mice receiving high doses of zinc, there was little effect on the overall growth and aggressiveness of the prostate tumors themselves. Because ZIP1 function is known to be impaired in prostate cancer cells, we presume that there was limited homing of zinc to the prostate cancer xenografts. Thus, we reason that a localized infusion of zinc, and thus a greater local concentration, could circumvent the reduced ZIP1 activity and allow greater bioaccumulation of zinc in the diseased prostate.

“Background In most agricultural soils, nitrogen (N) is th

“Background In most agricultural soils, nitrogen (N) is the main limiting nutrient and, accordingly, it is often supplied to crops as chemical fertilizers. Significant losses of N-fertilizers occur either by leaching—resulting in eutrophication of rivers, lakes, aquifers— or by denitrification, contributing to global warming

[1]. However, estimates indicate that up to 60% of the N needs of legume crops may be obtained from Poziotinib in vitro the biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) process [2, 3], with significant economic benefits to farmers while mitigating environmental impacts. Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is the most important food legume in South and Central America and in East Africa. It can establish symbiotic relationships with a variety of described and still-to-be-described

rhizobial species [4]. An important limitation to the BNF process involving common bean is the high genetic instability of the symbiotic plasmid of the rhizobial strains, as reported for Rhizobium phaseoli and Rhizobium etli. This instability has been attributed to genomic rearrangements, plasmid deletions and mutations, which are intensified under stressful conditions [5, 6]. Abiotic stresses such as high soil temperatures, in addition to water deficit, salinity and soil acidity comprise learn more the main factors causing genetic instability [7, 8]. Among common-bean rhizobia, Rhizobium tropici is recognized for its tolerance of environmental stresses, including high temperatures [7–9]. Within this species, strain PRF 81 (= SEMIA 4080) is known for the high capacity in fixing N2, competitiveness against other rhizobia, and tolerance of environmental stresses; it has been used in commercial inoculants in Brazil since 1998 [10, 11]. More information about the strain, including Fenbendazole genetic characterization, is given elsewhere [10, 12, 13]. The strain is deposited at the “Diazotrophic and Plant Growth Promoting Bacteria Culture Collection” at Embrapa Soja ( http://​www.​bmrc.​lncc.​br).

Mechanisms of response to stresses are usually highly conserved among bacterial species, and designed for rapid adaptation to environmental and metabolic changes. These conserved responses comprise the expression of molecular chaperones, such as DnaK (and its assistants DnaJ and GrpE), GroEL (and its assistant GroES), and also of small heat-shock proteins [14]. All are polypeptide-binding proteins implicated in protein folding, protein targeting to membranes, renaturation, and in the control of protein-protein interactions. In addition to conserved responses, some bacterial species also possess specific metabolic adaptations to stressful conditions. Recently, a draft genome of R. tropici strain PRF 81 revealed several probable genes that may be related to its outstanding symbiotic and saprophytic abilities and also its adaptability to environmental stresses [12]; elucidation of the whole genome of the strain is now in progress ( http://​www.​bnf.​lncc.​br).