Robust MLPA

Robust MLPA find more clusters of strains with identical STs or belonging to CCs were identified among the population, mainly among the 3 main clades this study. Each of these clusters included a limited number of strains (2 to 6 strains) that were further shown to be unrelated based on epidemiological data and/or PFGE results, and 52 out of the 191 fully analyzed strains (27.2%) were involved in these clusters. Twelve clusters grouped

strains from a unique host, i.e., a fish-associated subset within A. salmonicida and 11 human-associated subsets within the A. veronii (n = 6), A. caviae (n = 3) and A. hydrophila (n = 2) clades. Nine of these subsets included only disease-associated strains. Notably, all of the A. veronii human-associated clusters were disease associated. Among these clusters, ST13, which was shared by 6 strains of human origin and was mainly recovered during wound infections, may reflect a host (niche)-adapted pathogenic cluster among the A. veronii clade, which was otherwise characterized by high genetic diversity. The striking, unique PFGE pattern and ST may reflect the adaptation of this cluster to a niche in which genetic and genomic variability is not permitted due to strong constraints. However, because of the small number of strains included in these clusters, an increased number of strains should be studied to confirm whether specific lineages or CCs are more likely to contain

clinical isolates or be associated with a specific illness. The present see more study showed a relatively low frequency of recombination events compared to previous studies [15, 28]. This result may originate in the Selleck MGCD0103 differences between these studies in the genes evaluated and the population sampling strategies employed. The population sample studied by Martino et al. differed significantly from ours, as most of their isolates were obtained from fish, crustaceans

or mollusks [15]. Silver et al. deliberately included a very small number of isolates (n = 12) of host-associated strains (e.g., only strains isolated from leeches, human wounds or human feces), which may constitute a recruitment bias because these strains may be host Dimethyl sulfoxide adapted [28]. Interestingly, the recombination events encountered in our study were predominantly observed within clonal complexes (e.g., CC “D”, grouping A. veronii strains recovered during human diarrhea episodes), which supported the previous hypothesis of the study by Silver et al. [28]. Taxonomic considerations MLPA may be helpful for identification purposes. Indeed, strains that have previously rarely been reported in the literature were recognized among the study population, among which an A. jandaei isolate from a human urinary tract infection and an A. allosaccharophila strain recovered during human bacteremia were particularly remarkable. Moreover, MLPA may allow the correct identification of strains deposited in strain collections under erroneous or incomplete nomenclature, as observed for A.

8), and therefore, antireflective structures

8), and therefore, antireflective structures selleck chemical are indispensible to improve the device performance. Conventional multilayered thin-film antireflection coatings have been widely used to suppress the unwanted surface reflection losses. see more However, these coatings have serious drawbacks that are related to material selection, mechanical instability, and thermal mismatch. Furthermore, these antireflective coatings can suppress the reflections only over a narrow wavelength and incident angle range [5, 6]. Recently, bioinspired antireflective nanostructures with tapered features have attracted great interest for improving the performance of optical and optoelectronic

devices due to their broadband and omnidirectional antireflection properties as well as long-term stability [1, 5–13]. A commonly used technique to produce such antireflective nanostructures on various

materials is dry etching of nano-scale etch masks formed by electron-beam or interference Foretinib molecular weight lithography process [5, 6, 9, 10]. However, lithography-based nanopatterning method is not suitable for mass production because it is a time-consuming process requiring delicate and expensive equipment, reducing the cost effectiveness. Numerous research efforts have therefore been carried out to form nano-scale etch masks using a simple, fast, and cost-effective nanopatterning method in order to enhance productivity and thereby reduce the fabrication cost of antireflective nanostructures. In this paper, we report a simplified Fludarabine mw fabrication technique for producing antireflective nanostructures having tapered profile on Si substrates without using any lithography steps. To achieve this goal, nano-scale silver (Ag) etch masks were formed using spin-coating Ag ink and subsequent sintering process. The significant advantage of the reported technique is that it requires only a low temperature and a short process duration to form the Ag etch masks [7, 11, 12]. Furthermore, the technique avoids the usage of any lithographic process,

making it highly cost-effective for mass production [8]. Prior to fabrication, the period- (i.e., distance between the adjacent nanostructures) and height-dependent reflection characteristics of the Si nanostructures were theoretically investigated using a rigorous coupled-wave analysis (RCWA) method in order to provide a guideline for producing a desirable Si nanostructure with broadband antireflection properties because the antireflection properties of these nanostructures are closely correlated with their geometry [6–12]. The Ag ink ratio and dry etching conditions, which affect the distribution, distance between adjacent nanostructures, and height of resulting Si nanostructures, were carefully adjusted, and optimal experimental conditions were found that can produce desirable antireflective Si nanostructures for practical applications.

Similarly, in Clostridium difficile, genes encoding many ribosoma

Similarly, in Clostridium difficile, genes encoding many ribosomal proteins were coordinately up-regulated by antibiotics such as amoxicillin, clindamycin, and metronidazole [38]. Therefore, it is conceivable that the up-regulation of the genes encoding ribosomal proteins of polyP- exposed P. gingivalis (Table 4) may reflect a compensatory response for slower or disturbed function of the ribosome. Table Mocetinostat nmr 4 Differentially expressed genes related to ribosome Locus no. a Putative identification a Avg fold difference b Protein synthesis : Ribosomal proteins PG0037 50S ribosomal protein L19 3.23 PG0167 Ribosomal protein L25 1.86 PG0314 Ribosomal protein

L21 1.90 PG0315 50S ribosomal protein L27 1.78 PG0385 Ribosomal protein S21 3.98 PG0592 50S ribosomal protein L31 4.01 PG0656 50S ribosomal protein L34 6.80 PG0989 50S ribosomal protein L20 3.43 PG0990 Ribosomal protein L35 1.74 PG1723 Ribosomal protein S20 2.94 PG1758 Ribosomal protein S15 6.23 PG1959 Ribosomal protein L33 2.02 PG1960 Ribosomal protein L28

2.03 PG2117 30S ribosomal protein S16 2.93 PG2140 Ribosomal protein L32 3.40 PG0205 Peptide chain release factor 3 1.50 aLocus number, putative identification, and cellular role are according to the TIGR genome database. bAverage fold difference indicates the expression of the gene by polyP addition versus no polyP addition. Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor Meanwhile, ribosome biosynthesis of bacteria is governed by transcriptional and translational regulatory mechanisms that provide a balanced and coordinated production of individual ribosomal components [41]. It has been suggested that some free ribosomal proteins act as autogenous feedback inhibitors that cause selective translational inhibition Idoxuridine of the synthesis of certain ribosomal proteins whose genes are in the same operon as their own. This inhibition is due to the structural homology between certain ribosomal protein binding regions on 16S rRNA and the mRNA target site for the

ribosomal protein [42-44]. Although autogenous regulation is known to be a general strategy of balancing ribosomal protein synthesis in bacteria [41], mechanisms for controlling ribosomal protein gene expression in P. gingivalis have not yet been characterized. Further studies will be needed to elucidate the regulatory mechanisms involved in ribosomal protein synthesis in P. gingivalis. Transposon functions The majority of the up-regulated genes related to mobile and extrachromosomal element functions were the genes encoding transposases (Table 5). Transposition is generally known to be triggered by cellular stress, i.e., nutritional deficiency, chemicals, and oxidative agents. Little is known about the transposition in P. gingivalis, but up-regulation of transposase-related eFT-508 insertion sequence elements was noticed in P.

The review provides a detailed evaluation of the NICE appraisal,

The review provides a detailed evaluation of the NICE appraisal, highlighting differences A-1155463 nmr with the FRAX approach. In a review of the cost-effectiveness analysis performed for NOGG, they point out that the calculations were performed on the basis of an annual cost of £95 for generic alendronate—while the actual cost has now fallen by about 75%. It is pointed out that if resources were allocated to osteoporosis, then this may allow innovative therapy—but in reality, the use of agents, other than alendronate in the UK, is in a minority and continues to fall. The approach adopted by NICE was, of course, fundamentally different from that of NOGG; the guidance is restricted to postmenopausal

women with a T score of −2.5 or below, and other risk Selleckchem Barasertib factors for fracture (excluding men and glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis). NICE also distinguishes between primary and secondary prevention, weighting the latter higher. The

approach adopted leads to the differing treatment thresholds described previously, and the difficulty with its adoption in clinical practice. The economic model adopted by NICE has been criticised, and these criticisms are rehearsed in the Kanis review, including a discussion of the selective failure to adopt the clinical risk factors included in FRAX, and the effect of the impact of risk factors on the death hazard. In the review, Kanis and colleagues go on to assess the impact of the use of FRAX and changing the assumptions surrounding the model on the Sapanisertib purchase cost-effectiveness of strontium. They provide cost-effectiveness scenarios for women with a prior fracture and osteopenia, and in opportunistically assessed women with a T score of −2.5 SD or below and a clinical risk factor (except smoking), i.e. at very different thresholds for treatment compared

to NICE. In a recent paper, Bolland et al. [7] compared the approach favoured by NOGG with the US-based National Osteoporosis Foundation (NOF) guidance, based on a cohort of older women who participated in a 5-year randomised controlled trial of calcium supplementation and compared the treatment recommendations with fracture outcomes over Tacrolimus (FK506) 5 years for each algorithm. In their cohort, a total of 143 subjects (10%) sustained a non-traumatic osteoporotic fracture, and 21 sustained a non-traumatic hip fracture (1.4%). Applying the NOF guidelines required that 97% of participants undergo bone densitometry and 48% receive treatment. Seventy-six percent of hip fracture cases and 63% of osteoporotic fracture cases were identified for treatment. Applying the NOGG guidelines required that 13% of participants undergo bone densitometry and 21% receive treatment. It is inevitable that cost-effectiveness models will become outdated as further therapies for osteoporosis become generic.

Raman experiment Raman

Raman experiment Raman spectra of cells were collected using a Renishaw inVia microspectrometer equipped with a Cl-amidine semiconductor laser (785 nm) and a Leica DM2500 microscope (Leica). A × 50 objective was used to focus the laser beam and to collect the Raman signal. The Raman spectra were recorded in the range of 600 to 1,700 cm−1. Before the cell Raman spectra was obtained, the Raman band of silicon wafer at 520 cm−1 was obtained to calibrate the spectrometer and all the data were collected under the same conditions. All experiments were independently carried Dasatinib nmr out at least five times. All the Raman spectra were baseline-corrected, removing the fluorescence background using a Vancouver Raman Algorithm software

[28]. Statistical analysis The data of MTT assay, trypan blue assay, and flow cytometry experiment were presented as mean and standard deviation. Independent sample t test was used to analyze the differences between the treated groups and the control groups, and p value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results and discussion Synthesis and characterization of GQDs Figure 1a displayed the UV–Vis spectra of the three GQDs. The UV–Vis absorption spectra of aGQDs showed characteristic peak at around 230 nm and the absorption intensity decreased with the increasing wavelength,

which was consistent with the previous report [6]. The characteristic absorption peak of cGQDs was at 362 nm with a narrow full width at half maximum of 60 nm, which was similar to previous reports [6, 9]. Whereas, the UV–Vis analysis AZD0156 solubility dmso revealed that the absorption

of dGQDs was at 300 nm, and the full width at half maximum was 56 nm. Figure 1 UV–Vis absorption spectra and fluorescence spectra Rapamycin of three kinds of GQDs. (a) The UV–Vis absorption spectra of three kinds of GQDs. (b) The fluorescence spectra of aGQDs excited from 320 to 580 nm. (c) The fluorescence spectra of cGQDs independent on the excitation wavelength. (d) The fluorescence spectra of dGQDs. As shown in Figure 1b, the fluorescence emission of aGQDs was excitation-dependent. The emission peaks shifted from 470 to 600 nm when the excitation wavelength was changed from 320 to 580 nm in a 20-nm increment. The strongest fluorescence peak was at 500 nm with 420 nm as the excitation wavelength, which was in agreement with a previous report [6]. Whereas, the emission peak of cGQDs and dGQDs were excitation-independent (Figure 1c,d). The maximum excitation wavelength and the maximum emission wavelength were at 400 and 440 nm for cGQDs and 400 and 500 nm for dGQDs, respectively. As can be seen in Figure 2, TEM images indicated that the average size of aGQDs was about 7.5 nm (Figure 2a) and the cGQDs was about 15 nm and they were monodispersed (Figure 2b), which were in accordance with previous reports [6, 9]. The diameters of dGQDs mainly ranged from 3 to 10 nm (7.5 nm average diameter), and they were also monodispersed (Figure 2c).

34 Swami N, He H, Koel BE: Polymerization and decomposition of C

34. Swami N, He H, Koel BE: Polymerization and decomposition of C 60 on Pt(111) surfaces. Phys Rev B 1999, 59:8283–8291.CrossRef 35. Andres H, Basler R, Blake AJ, Cadiou C, Chaboussant G, Grand CM, Güdel H-U, Murrie M, Parsons S, Paulsen C, this website Semadini F, Villar V, Wernsdorfer W, Winpenny REP: Studies of a nickel-based single-molecule magnet. Chem Eur J 2002,8(21):4867–4876.CrossRef

Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Authors’ contributions AG and TV carried out the AFM measurements supervised by AB and UH. LS and KK carried out the XPS measurements supervised by KK. VH synthesized AZD0530 cost the SMMs supervised by TG. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background Multijunction solar cells (MJSC) are instrumental in concentrated (CPV) and space photovoltaic systems.

The driving force for the material and technological development of MJSCs is the need for higher conversion efficiency. In CPV systems, the conversion efficiency is further increased owing to the use of concentrated light and therefore any efficiency gain that can be made by using more suitable materials and advanced design would lead to significant gain in overall system efficiency. The record CPV efficiency for lattice-matched GaInP/GaAs/GaInNAsSb SC is 44% [1]. On the other hand, the best lattice-matched GaInP/GaAs/Ge exhibit a peak efficiency of 43.3% under concentration [2] and 34.1% at 1 sun [3]. Efficiencies as high as 50% have been predicted for cells with a larger number of junctions and high concentration [4]. To this end, a promising approach is to integrate dilute nitrides and standard GaInP/GaAs/Ge. Yet, so far, such heterostructures have exhibited low current generation [5]. The GaInNAs and GaInNAsSb solar cells reported in the literature have typically high bandgap voltage offsets (W oc), indicating poor junction properties [6, 7]. The offsets can be higher than 0.6 V, which is a rather high value when compared to GaInAs materials exhibiting a W oc of 0.4 V or even lower [4]. Recent studies on GaInNAs grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) have demonstrated that by employing proper fabrication parameters [8–10], the W oc can be reduced below 0.5 V [11]. Another peculiar feature of GaInNAs solar cells is their shunt-like junction operation [6, 12]. This feature has been associated with clustering in GaInNAs due to phase separation of GaInNAs. Phase separation and shunt-like operation can also be avoided in MBE by the optimizing of the growth parameters [13]. In this paper, we focus on GaInNAsSb-based multijunction SCs, in particular on evaluating the practical bandgap and thickness limitations set by the subjunctions. Using realistic solar cell parameters for GaInNAsSb, based on the diode model and Kirchhoff’s laws, we estimate the efficiency of GaInP/GaAs/GaInNAsSb and GaInP/GaAs/GaInNAsSb/Ge solar cells.

All statistical analyses were performed using SPSS (version 16 0;

All statistical analyses were performed using SPSS (version 16.0; SPSS Inc., selleck screening library Chicago, IL, USA). Results Characteristics of the GOOD cohort The characteristics of the young men, including current anthropometric

data, as well as at the time of birth, calcium intake, smoking (yes or no), current level of physical activity (hours/week), total body adipose tissue, and lean mass are given in Table 1. Parental characteristics, including maternal and paternal age, maternal anthropometrics, maternal smoking in early pregnancy, maternal parity, length of pregnancy, vaginal delivery, or caesarian section and socioeconomic index of the household in 1985, are also presented in Table 1. Bone parameters, including aBMD, BMC and area of the total body, lumbar spine, femoral neck and the non-dominant radius, and cortical and trabecular vBMD, cortical cross-sectional area, periosteal and endosteal

circumference of the non-dominant radius are given in Table 2. Table 1 Anthropometric characteristics, environmental factors, and circumstances at the time of birth of men in the GOOD cohort as well as parental characteristics Variables No. Mean ± SD GOOD cohort  Age (year) 1,009 18.9 ± 0.6  Height (cm) 1,009 181.7 ± 6.6  Weight (kg) 1,009 74.0 ± 11.9  Calcium intake (mg/day) 1,009 1,108 ± 727  Smoking (%) 1,009 9.0  Physical activity (hours/week) 1,009 4.3 ± 5.2  Total body adipose tissue (kg) 1,009 13.4 ± 8.0  Total body lean mass (kg) 1,009 57.6 ± 6.1  Birth height (cm) 998 50.8 ± 2.1  Birth weight (g) 977 3,580 ± 547 Parental variables at the time of childbirth  Maternal age (year) 1,009 29.5 ± 4.8  Paternal age (year) 1,002 32.6 ± 5.5  Maternal height (cm) 832 167.1 ± 5.8  Maternal click here weight before pregnancy (kg) 885 60.5 ± 8.2  Maternal

smoking in early pregnancy (%) 967 25.7  Maternal parity (n) 1,009 1.65 ± 0.83  Vaginal delivery (%) 1,008 86.0  Caesarean section (%) 1,008 14.0  Length of pregnancy (day) 1,009 278 ± 12  Socioeconomic index of the household 1985a 960 2.04 ± 0.77 Table 1. Mean values and standard deviations aBMD areal bone mineral density; BMC bone mineral selleck kinase inhibitor content aSocioeconomic index given from 1 to 3, where 1 is lower social position and 3 is higher Table 2 Bone parameters and their correlation and association with maternal age Bone variables Mean ± SDa 6-phosphogluconolactonase r valuea β-coefficientsb β-coefficientsc β-coefficientsd DXA Total body aBMD (g/cm2) 1.25 ± 0.10 −0.070* −0.036 −0.032 −0.031 Lumbar spine aBMD (g/cm2) 1.24 ± 0.15 −0.092** −0.076** −0.076** −0.091** Femoral neck aBMD (g/cm2) 1.17 ± 0.16 −0.021 −0.006 0.001 0.007 Radius non-dominant aBMD (g/cm2) 0.58 ± 0.06 −0.062* −0.035 −0.005 −0.004 Total body BMC (g) 3,209 ± 447 −0.055 −0.040* −0.038 −0.033 Lumbar spine BMC (g) 61.5 ± 10.9 −0.081* −0.078** −0.084** −0.090** Femoral neck BMC (g) 6.45 ± 1.07 −0.029 −0.013 −0.013 −0.003 Radius non-dominant BMC (g) 10.1 ± 1.5 −0.077* −0.075*** −0.071** −0.069** Total body area (cm2) 2,561 ± 198 −0.026 −0.034 −0.036 −0.031 Lumbar spine area (cm2) 49.

Mutations which correspond to polymorphism outside the encoding s

Mutations which correspond to polymorphism outside the encoding sequences are not presented here. GenBank accession A-1210477 price numbers of the corresponding sequences are in brackets. b Mutations shared by the three mutant isolates and the two wild-type strains used as controls. All these mutations were silent, corresponding only to polymorphism, except mutations G1203A (replacement of an aspartic acid by an asparagine) and T5639C (replacement

of a phenylalanine by a serine) from comparisons to gene sequences available in the Genbank database. Evidence for conidiation and visualisation of the conidial surface by scanning electron microscopy SEM observation of cultures of mutant isolates on yeast extract – peptone – dextrose – agar (YPDA) plates through dialysis membranes showed typical conidial heads, consistent with the powdery texture of their colonies (data not shown). Further examination of the conidia by SEM showed, as expected, a typical echinulate surface for reference strains (CBS 113.26 and IHEM 18963) and Captisol chemical structure smooth-walled conidia for the pigmentless isolates IHEM 2508 and 9860 (Figure 4). SEM also revealed the absence of ornamentations on the conidial surface for the brownish isolate IHEM

15998, as well as for reference strains cultivated in the presence of pyroquilon (Figure 4). Figure 4 Visualisation of the conidial surface by scanning electron microscopy. AZD4547 Conidia from 5-day-old cultures of the reference strains CBS 113.26 (A and C) and IHEM 18963 (B and D) cultivated in the presence (C and D) or not (A and B) of pyroquilon 20 μg/mL, and of mutant isolates (E and F: pigmentless isolates IHEM 2508 and 9860; G: brownish isolate IHEM 15998) were observed by scanning electron microscopy. Bars correspond to 1 μm. Flow cytometry analysis of laminin and fibronectin binding The conidial adhesion to laminin and fibronectin was quantified

by flow cytometry on conidia from 5-day-old cultures. Results showed a slight, but significant, increase in specific binding (total binding – non specific binding) of fibronectin at the conidial surface for pigmentless (IHEM 2508 and 9860) and brownish (IHEM 15998) isolates compared to the wild-type strains (CBS113.26 and IHEM 18963), associated with a marked decrease Liothyronine Sodium in binding of laminin (Table 4). Table 4 Flow cytometry analysis of the binding of laminin and fibronectin Strain or isolate number Control Laminin binding Fibronectin binding     Total Residual Specific Total Residual Specific Reference strains                  CBS 113.26 20 11442 2054 9388 234 96 138    IHEM 18963 37 12652 2792 9860 229 146 83 Mutant isolates                  IHEM 2508 40 1671 869 802 222 76 146    IHEM 9860 63 4606 2465 2141 560 247 313    IHEM 15998 35 10785 3574 7211 354 151 203 Results are mean values of the data collected for 10,000 cells.

innocua strains, 5 from reference collections, 13 from meat, 8 fr

innocua strains, 5 from reference collections, 13 from meat, 8 from milk and 8 from seafoods, and 4 L. welshimeri strains. Listeria strains were retrieved from glycerol stocks maintained at -80°C, and cultured in brain heart infusion broth (BHI; Oxoid, Hampshire, England) at 37°C. learn more Carbohydrate fermentation and hemolytic reactions The recommended biochemical patterns for differentiating Listeria spp. included L-rhamnose, D-xylose, D-mannitol and glucose utilization and hemolytic reactivity, and were tested by using

conventional procedures [36, 37]. DNA manipulations Genomic DNA was extracted using a protocol reported previously [12]. Oligonucleotide primers were synthesized by Invitrogen Biotechnology (Shanghai, China) (Table 6 and Additional file 1; table S2), and Taq DNA polymerase (TaKaRa Biotech Co. Ltd., Dalian, China) was used for PCR amplification. PCR was conducted using a PT-200 thermal cycler (MJ Research Inc. MA, Boston, USA), with annealing temperatures depending on specific primer pairs (Table 6 and Additional file 1; table S2), and the duration of extension depending on the expected length of

amplicon (1 min per kb, at 72°C). For DNA sequencing analysis, PCR fragments were purified with the AxyPrep DNA Gel Extraction Kit (Axygen Inc., USA) and their sequences determined by dideoxy method on ABI-PRISM 377 DNA sequencer. Table 6 Primers used for MLST Locus Putative function Locationa Forward primer NU7026 solubility dmso Tenoxicam Reverse primer Length (bp) gyrB DNA gyrase subunit B 6,031-7,971 TGGTGCATCGGTAGTTAATGC CAACATCTGGGTTTTCCATCAT 657 dapE Succinyl diaminopimelate desuccinylase 301,402-302,538 GTAAATATTGATTCGACTAATG CACTAGCACTTGTTTCACTG 669 hisJ Histidinol phosphate phosphatase 606,408-607,235 TCCACATGGTACGCATGAT GGACATGTCAAAATGAAAGATC

714 sigB Stess responsive alternative sigma factor B 924,734-925,513 CCAAAAGTATCTCAACCTGAT CATGCATTTGTGATATATCGA 642 ribC Riboflavin kinaseand FAD synthase 1,364,536-1,365,480 AAGACGATATACTTACATCAT GTCTTTTTCTAACTGAGCA 633 purM Phosphoribosyl aminoimidazole synthase 1,893,107-1,894,153 CAAGCTCCACTTTGACAGCTAA TAAAGCAGGCGTGGACGTA 693 betL Glycine betaine transporter 2,216,882-2,218,405 ACAGAACATTATCCAAATGAGTT ACGTTGTGATTTTTTCGGTC 534 gap Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase 2,578,558-2,579,584 CTGGATCAGAAGCTGCTTCCA GTCGTATTCAAAATGTGGAAGGA 621 tuf Translation elongation factor 2,816,958-2,818,145 CATTTCTACTCCAGTTACTACT GCTCTAAACCCCATGTTA 681 Subtotal         5,844 a, Positions correspond to complete genome sequence of L. innocua strain CLIP11262 (AL592022). Internalin profiling By sequence comparison of L. monocytogenes strains F2365, H7858 (serovar 4b), EGDe and F6854 (serovar 1/2a) and L. innocua strain CLIP11262, we investigated the presence or absence of 14 L. monocytogenes-L. innocua-common and 4 L. innocua-specific internalin genes as well as 19 L. monocytogenes-specific internalin genes by PCR with specific primers outlined in Additional file 1; table S1.

The remaining five genes with putative roles in IL-10 modulation

The remaining five genes with putative roles in IL-10 modulation comprise a putative 5 gene operon (lp_2647 to lp_2651) encoding Pts19ADCBR, an N-acetyl-galactosamine/glucosamine phosphotransferase system (PTS). Strains harboring these genes were associated with induction of lower amounts of IL-10 by PBMCs. Table 2 L. plantarum genes with putative roles in modulating

PBMC cytokine production. Genes(s) Gene numbera Product Percent Trichostatin A of strains with the gene(s)b Gene-dependent contribution to cytokine stimulationc lp_1953 lp_1953 Hypothetical protein 48 IL-10 1.6-fold ↑ pts19ADCBR lp_2647-2651 N-galactosamine PTS, EIIADCB and transcription regulator, GntR family 33 IL-10 1.7-fold ↓ plnEFI lp_0419-0422 Immunity protein PlnI 81-85 IL-10/IL-12 1.7-fold

↓     Bacteriocin-like peptide PlnF           Bacteriocin-like peptide PlnE       plnG lp_0423 ABC transporter 88 IL-10/IL-12 1.8-fold ↓ lamB lp_3582 Accessory gene Alvocidib regulator protein 43 IL-10/IL-12 1.3-fold ↓ prophage P2b 1 & 21 lp_2460 Prophage P2b protein 21 38 IL-10/IL-12 1.5-fold ↑   lp_2480 Prophage P2b protein 1, integrase       a Gene number on the L. plantarum WCFS1 chromosome [23]. b Percentage of L. plantarum strains containing the gene according to CGH [27, 28]. c Gene-trait matching importance measures (in parentheses) and predicted effects of the gene(s) on the variable and average magnitude and direction (higher or lower) of IL-10 and IL-10/IL-12 amounts. Comparisons between L. plantarum strain-specific CGH profiles and IL-10/IL-12 ratios from PBMCs resulted in the identification of four L. plantarum WCFS1 loci which correlated with IL-10/IL-12 values (Table

2). L. plantarum WCFS1 plnEFI and plnG (lp_419-423) and lamB (lp_3582) were most commonly present Selleckchem MG132 in strains stimulating low IL-10/IL-12 ratios. These genes are under the control of the auto-inducing peptide (AIP)-based quorum sensing (QS) two-component regulatory systems (QS-TCSs) found in L. plantarum [39, 40]. The genes plnEFI and plnG encode two bacteriocin peptides, a bacteriocin immunity protein, and an ATP – Binding Cassette (ABC) transporter [23, 41]. The lamB is the first gene in the L. plantarum lamBDCA operon and shows 30% amino acid identity to the S. aureus AgrD-processing protein AgrB required for AIP modification and export [39]. The other L. plantarum genes associated with specific IL-10/IL-12 ratios are lp_2460 and lp_2480 coding for prophage R-Lp3 remnant proteins P2b protein 21 and 1, respectively [23]. These genes are conserved among L. plantarum strains stimulating high IL-10/IL-12 ratios in PBMCs. The functions of prophage R-Lp3 and other complete prophages in L. plantarum WCFS1 genome are not known [42]. Because the different prophages found in L. plantarum WCFS1 share high levels of sequence homology and potential Selleckchem S3I-201 functional redundancy [42], these genes were not examined further. Verification of the roles of the candidate genes in immunomodulation To validate the influence of the candidate L.