Most significantly, trimetric G proteincoupled thermosensation, single sensory neuron-based memory, and the orchestrated synaptic transmission system have been elucidated. (c) 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.”
“Intermittent swim stress (ISS) produces deficits in swim escape learning and increases immobility in the forced swim test (FST). A previous attempt to reverse this immobility with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), fluoxetine (FLX), was unsuccessful, but the sensitivity of this immobility to other types of antidepressants is unknown.
In experiment 1, we evaluate the ability of the norepinephrine
CUDC-907 concentration (NE) selective reuptake inhibitor (NSRI), desipramine (DES), to reverse the ISS-induced immobility in the FST compared to confined controls (CC), while in experiment
2, we test the efficacy of either the SSRI or NSRI to reverse the immobility produced by either ISS or continuous swim (CS)/FST.
Rats were exposed to their respective behavioral pretreatment (ISS, CS/FST, or CC) and were then injected with an antidepressant or saline solution 23.5, 5, and 1 h prior to the FST.
In experiment 1, DES reduced immobility and increased the climbing behavior in the ISS group without altering these behaviors in the CC, while in experiment 2, the CS/FST-induced immobility was reduced by both antidepressants (i.e., FLX and DES), while the ISS-induced immobility was only affected by DES.
These PRN1371 in vivo results suggest that the ISS-induced immobility is mediated through the NE system and may represent a model for atypical depression.”
“Rotavirus nonstructural protein NSP2, a functional octamer, is critical for the formation of viroplasms, which are exclusive sites for replication and packaging of the segmented double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)
rotavirus genome. As a component of replication intermediates, NSP2 is also implicated in various replication-related activities. In addition to sequence-independent single-stranded RNA-binding and helix-destabilizing activities, NSP2 exhibits monomer-associated nucleoside and 5′ RNA triphosphatase (NTPase/RTPase) activities Pregnenolone that are mediated by a conserved H225 residue within a narrow enzymatic cleft. Lack of a 5′ gamma-phosphate is a common feature of the negative-strand RNA [(-)RNA] of the packaged dsRNA segments in rotavirus. Strikingly, all (-)RNAs (of group A rotaviruses) have a 5′ GG dinucleotide sequence. As the only rotavirus protein with 5′ RTPase activity, NSP2 is implicated in the removal of the gamma-phosphate from the rotavirus (-)RNA. To understand how NSP2, despite its sequence-independent RNA-binding property, recognizes (-) RNA to hydrolyze the gamma-phosphate within the catalytic cleft, we determined a crystal structure of NSP2 in complex with the 5′ consensus sequence of minus-strand rotavirus RNA.