Exhaustive endurance exercise can induce immune disturbances and consequently increase susceptibility to upper respiratory tract infections . Several mechanisms have been proposed in an attempt to explain CB-5083 the susceptibility of athletes to respiratory infections. Cortisol contributes only minimally to the exercise induced rise in liver glucose output , while it plays a role in immune disturbances [9, 10]. Several components of the innate immune system are compromised during single or repeated sessions of exercise stress. Physical exercise can affect
the levels of systemic cytokines, such as TNF-α [11–13], interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β) , IL-6 [12–16], interferon and others . Recently, it has been suggested that the disruptions in the balance between pro- and antiinflammatory cytokines may lead to a loss of inflammatory control, with possible implications for overall immune system function [17, 18]. The effect of ingesting carbohydrates during long duration exercises,
with the purpose of attenuating Repotrectinib order immune suppression is well established [6, 12–14]. Cereals oat bran has a high nutritional quality, an naturally source of CHO , rich in proteins, unsaturated fatty acids, vitamins, and complex starches that comprise the part with the largest quantity of soluble fiber. Another Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase important nutrient in oat bran is β-Glucan, and has well-documented stimulation effects on the immune system. Also may help enhance immune resistance to various viral, bacterial, protozoan, and fungal diseases . Animal studies show that oat β-glucan can offset exercise-induced immune suppression and decrease susceptibility to infection during heavy training . Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of oat bran supplementation on time to exhaustion, glycogen stores and cytokines profile in rats submitted to training. Materials and methods Experimental groups All experiments were conducted
according to the policy of the American College of Sports Medicine on Research with Experimental Animals. Two-month-old male Wistar rats (Rattus novergicus var. albinus, Rodentia, Cyclosporin A in vivo Mammalia) with a mean ± SEM weight of 200 ± 5 g were used. The animals had free access to water and were fed a commercial chow for rodents (NUVILAB, Purina®) ad libitum. The animals were kept in collective cages (3 rats per cage) at a constant temperature of 23 ± 2°C, and a cycle of 12 hours light/12 hours darkness, with light from 06:00 h to 18:00 h (in pathogen-free housing). Before the experimental period began, the animals underwent 48 hours of adaptation to the research laboratory conditions.