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23. Collins CH, Lyne PM, Grange JM: Counting microorganism. In Microbiological Methods. Edited by: Collins CH, Lyne PM, Grange JM. Oxford, UK: Butterworth-Heinemann; 1989:127–140. Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Authors’ contributions ADC and RE developed and performed the experiments by dynamic light scattering and drafted the manuscript. MA did the assays about MIC to HA, HA utilization and strains’ resistance to simulated gastric juice. MB and BP provided scientific orientation and revised the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background Alteration of the host’s metabolism is common in infectious diseases; PF-01367338 solubility dmso it can lead to patient NCT-501 in vivo malnutrition and the need for nutritional support [1, 2]. Infection-driven metabolic changes are characterized by an accelerated flux of glucose, lipids, proteins and amino acids that may result in net protein loss and diabetic-like hyperglycemia [1, 2]. Significant metabolic disorders have been observed
in natural and experimental infections with the FRAX597 cost bacterium Salmonella enterica, including changes of the lipid and protein profiles and widespread hormonal imbalances [1, 3, 4]. In humans, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi causes typhoid fever, a disease characterized by multi-organ bacterial colonization with common immunopathological manifestations in the gastrointestinal tract and the hepatobiliary system . The molecular and physiological bases of the metabolic
disorders observed during infection are not fully understood. In this work, we examined the disruption of the enterohepatic fibroblast growth factor 15/19 (FGF15/19)-fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4) endocrine axis during bacterial infections of the enterohepatic system. FGF15/19 (FGF15 in mice, FGF19 in humans) is an endocrine factor secreted by intestinal enterocytes . FGF15/19 has a crucial role in the control of whole body glucose and lipid metabolism and energy expenditure [7, 8]. It is also a key regulator of de novo synthesis of bile acids tuclazepam via the repression of cholesterol 7 alpha hydroxylase (CYP7A1) expression in hepatocytes . In addition, FGF15 represses the apical Na+-dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT) expression in hepatic cholangiocytes  and facilitates gallbladder filling by promoting gallbladder muscle distension . Through these functions, FGF15/19 closes an important negative feedback loop in the regulation of bile acid homeostasis. Signaling to hepatic target cells occurs through the interaction of FGF15/19 with the tyrosine kinase receptor fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4) and also requires the protein βKlotho. Mice genetically deficient for Fgf15, Fgfr4 or Klb (βKlotho) have similar biliary phenotypes with higher levels of CYP7A1 and increased synthesis of bile acids [6, 12–14].