An analysis was also performed of Regie de l’assurance maladie du

An analysis was also performed of Regie de l’assurance maladie du Quebec administrative data on medical procedures.\n\nSetting Quebec.\n\nParticipants

Overall, 1415 general practitioners from different practice settings were invited to complete a questionnaire; 970 general practitioners were contacted. A subgroup of 60 general practitioners were contacted to participate in interviews.\n\nMain outcome measures The annual frequency of consultations over MHPs, either common (CMHPs) or serious (SMHPs), clinical practices, collaborative practices, Veliparib factors that either support or interfere with the management of MHPs, and recommendations for improving the health care system.\n\nResults The response rate was 41% (n = 398 general practitioners) for the survey and 63% (n = 60) for the interviews. Approximately 25% of visits to general practitioners are related to MHPs. Nearly all general practitioners manage CMHPs and believed themselves competent to do so; however, the reverse is true for the management of SMHPs. Nearly 20% of patients with CMHPs are referred (mainly to psychosocial professionals), whereas nearly 75% of patients with SMHPs are referred (mostly to psychiatrists and https://www.selleckchem.com/products/azd9291.html emergency departments). More than 50% of general practitioners say that they

do not have any contact with resources in the mental health field. Numerous factors influence the management of MHPs: patients’ profiles (the complexity of the MHP, concomitant disorders); individual characteristics of the general practitioner (informal network, training); the professional culture (working in isolation, formal clinical mechanisms); the institutional setting (multidisciplinarity, staff or consultant); organization of services (resources,

formal coordination); and environment (policies).\n\nConclusion The key role played by general practitioners and their support IPI-549 in vitro of the management of MHPs were evident, especially for CMHPs. For more optimal management of primary mental health care, multicomponent strategies, such as shared care, should be used more often.”
“BACKGROUND: Unstable intertrochanteric fractures remain a challenging problem in elderly individuals due to high failure rates associated with internal fixation. Hemiarthroplasty is one treatment option for intertrochanteric femur fractures in elderly patients. The aim of the present study was to compare the reliability of cementless and cemented hemiarthroplasty for unstable intertrochanteric femur fractures in elderly patients.\n\nMETHODS: Elderly patients with AO type 31-A2 intertrochanteric femur fractures were treated with cemented (n=40) or cementless (n=46) hemiarthroplasty. Duration of surgery, amount of blood loss and blood transfusion, Harris hip scores, rate of loosening of the femoral component, duration of hospital stay after surgery and mortality rates were recorded.

In systems with faster dynamic exchange, single molecule ACFs ave

In systems with faster dynamic exchange, single molecule ACFs average over successive environments, limiting the reported heterogeneity of the system. This leads to degeneracies in stretching exponent for systems with different underlying relaxation time distributions. We show that monitoring single molecule median stretching exponent as a function of trajectory length or simultaneously measuring median stretching exponent and measured relaxation time distribution

at a given trajectory length can resolve these degeneracies, revealing the underlying set of relaxation times as well as median exchange time. (C) 2015 AIP Publishing LLC.”
“Arteriogenesis is an inflammatory process associated with rapid cellular changes involving DMXAA cell line vascular resident endothelial progenitor cells (VR-EPCs). Extracellular cell surface

bound 20S proteasome has been implicated to play an important role in inflammatory processes. In our search for antigens initially regulated during collateral growth mAb CTA 157-2 was generated against membrane fractions of growing collateral vessels. CTA 157-2 stained endothelium of growing collateral vessels and the cell surface of VR-EPCs. CTA 157-2 bound a protein complex (760 kDa) that was identified as 26 kDa alpha 7 and 21kDa beta 3 subunit of 20S proteasome selleck products in mass spectrometry. Furthermore we demonstrated specific staining of 20S proteasome after immunoprecipitation of VR-EPC membrane extract with CTA 157-2 sepharose beads. Functionally, CTA 157-2 enhanced concentration dependently AMC (7-amino4-methylcoumarin) cleavage from LLVY (N-Succinyl-Leu-Leu-Val-Tyr) by recombinant 20S proteasome as well as proteasomal activity in VR-EPC extracts. Proliferation of VR-EPCs (BrdU incorporation) was reduced by CTA 157-2. Infusion of the antibody into the collateral circulation

reduced number of collateral arteries, collateral proliferation, and collateral conductance in vivo. In conclusion our Nutlin-3 mw results indicate that extracellular cell surface bound 20S proteasome influences VR-EPC function in vitro and collateral growth in vivo.”
“Detection of specific antibodies may represent an additional tool in diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB). Herein, levels of serum IgG antibodies against early secreted antigenic target (ESAT-6), culture filtrate antigen-10 (CFP-10) and 16kDa Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens were measured in 33 active pulmonary TB patients (0M-TB), in 47 patients after 1-3 months of treatment (3M-TB) and in 22 patients who had completed 6 months of chemotherapy (6M-TB). The control group consisted of 38 BCG-vaccinated healthy controls (HC). In addition, IFN-gamma, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, IL-6, IL-2, IL-4 and IL-10 production in PBMC cultures from 20 patients were measured following stimulation with the M. tuberculosis-specific fusion protein ESAT-6/CFP-10.

According to the current guidelines, the indication for CRT is on

According to the current guidelines, the indication for CRT is only based on QRS duration and functional class of heart failure. However, a

substantial amount of patients do not respond to therapy. In addition, CRT is accompanied Apoptosis Compound Library clinical trial by significant cost and potential morbidity. It is therefore vital to improve patient selection for CRT to improve patient outcome and minimize therapy-related complications. In this regard, cardiac sympathetic innervation may be of interest. This review addresses the currently available literature, 9 studies with a total number of 225 patients, on CRT and cardiac innervation scintigraphy with I-123-metaiodobenzylguanidine.”
“Hasek BE, Stewart LK, Henagan TM, Boudreau A, Lenard NR, Black C, Shin J, Huypens P, Malloy VL, Plaisance EP, Krajcik RA, Orentreich N, Gettys TW. Dietary methionine restriction enhances metabolic flexibility and increases uncoupled respiration in both fed and fasted states. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 299: R728-R739, 2010. First published June 10, 2010; doi:10.1152/ajpregu.00837.2009.-Dietary methionine restriction (MR) is a mimetic of chronic dietary restriction (DR) in the sense that MR increases rodent longevity,

but without food restriction. We report here that MR also persistently increases total energy expenditure (EE) and limits SB273005 nmr fat deposition despite increasing weight-specific food consumption. In Fischer 344 (F344) rats consuming control or MR diets for 3, 9, and 20 mo, mean EE was 1.5-fold higher in MR vs. control rats, primarily selleck chemical due to higher EE during the night at all ages. The day-to-night transition produced a twofold higher heat increment of feeding (3.0 degrees C vs. 1.5 degrees C) in MR vs. controls and an exaggerated increase in respiratory quotient (RQ) to values greater than 1, indicative of the interconversion of glucose to lipid by de novo lipogenesis. The simultaneous inhibition of glucose utilization and shift to fat oxidation during the day was also more

complete in MR (RQ similar to 0.75) vs. controls (RQ similar to 0.85). Dietary MR produced a rapid and persistent increase in uncoupling protein 1 expression in brown (BAT) and white adipose tissue (WAT) in conjunction with decreased leptin and increased adiponectin levels in serum, suggesting that remodeling of the metabolic and endocrine function of adipose tissue may have an important role in the overall increase in EE. We conclude that the hyperphagic response to dietary MR is matched to a coordinated increase in uncoupled respiration, suggesting the engagement of a nutrient-sensing mechanism, which compensates for limited methionine through integrated effects on energy homeostasis.”
“Pulmonary function measures reflect respiratory health and are used in the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

Two selective P2X7 receptor antagonists, A-740003 and A-438079, p

Two selective P2X7 receptor antagonists, A-740003 and A-438079, potently blocked P2X7 receptor activation across mammalian species. Several reported P2X1 receptor antagonists [e.g. MRS 2159 (4-[(4-formyl-5-hydroxy-6-methyl-3-[(phosphonooxy)methyl}-2-pyridinyl)azo]-benzoic acid), PPNDS and NF279] blocked P2X7

receptors. NF279 fully blocked human P2X7 receptors, but only partially blocked BALB/c P2X7 receptors and was inactive at C57BL/6 P2X7 receptors.\n\nConclusions and implications:\n\nThese data provide new insights into P2X7 receptor antagonist pharmacology across mammalian species. P2X7 receptor pharmacology in a widely used knockout background mouse strain (C57BL/6) was similar to wild-type mouse P2X7 APR-246 price receptors. Several structurally novel, selective and competitive P2X7 receptor antagonists show less species differences compared with earlier non-selective antagonists.”
“IMA901 is the first therapeutic vaccine for renal cell cancer (RCC) consisting of multiple tumor-associated peptides (TUMAPs) confirmed to be naturally presented in human cancer tissue. We treated a total of 96 human leukocyte

antigen A (HLA-A)*02(+) subjects with advanced RCC with IMA901 in two consecutive studies. In the phase 1 study, the T cell responses of the patients to multiple TUMAPs were associated with better disease control and lower numbers of prevaccine forkhead box P3 (FOXP3)(+) regulatory T (T-reg) cells. The randomized phase 2 trial showed that a single dose PLX4032 nmr of cyclophosphamide reduced the number of Selleckchem C188-9 T-reg cells and confirmed that immune responses to multiple TUMAPs were associated with longer overall survival. Furthermore, among six predefined populations of myeloid-derived suppressor cells, two were prognostic for overall survival, and among over 300 serum biomarkers, we identified apolipoprotein A-I (APOA1) and chemokine (C-C motif)

ligand 17 (CCL17) as being predictive for both immune response to IMA901 and overall survival. A randomized phase 3 study to determine the clinical benefit of treatment with IMA901 is ongoing.”
“Purpose: Prostate gland segmentation is a critical step in prostate radiotherapy planning, where dose plans are typically formulated on CT. Pretreatment MRI is now beginning to be acquired at several medical centers. Delineation of the prostate on MRI is acknowledged as being significantly simpler to perform, compared to delineation on CT. In this work, the authors present a novel framework for building a linked statistical shape model (LSSM), a statistical shape model (SSM) that links the shape variation of a structure of interest (SOI) across multiple imaging modalities. This framework is particularly relevant in scenarios where accurate boundary delineations of the SOI on one of the modalities may not be readily available, or difficult to obtain, for training a SSM.

The CXCL13 expression levels were significantly more elevated

\n\nThe CXCL13 expression levels were significantly more elevated in H. pylori-positive patients than uninfected ones. The CXCL13 expression levels correlated with the degree of chronic gastritis and bacterial colonization. Immunohistochemistry and in vitro infection assay showed

that CXCL13 was not produced by the gastric epithelium, but the alpha-smooth muscle antigen expressing mesenchymal cells were the possible source of CXCL13 www.selleckchem.com/products/Gefitinib.html within H. pylori-infected gastric mucosa. CXCR5 immunostaining was seen in the CD20-positive lymphoid aggregates.\n\nThe enhanced induction of CXCL13 may be involved in the pathogenesis of H. pylori-associated gastritis.”
“We report a Quantum mechanics/Molecular Mechanics Poisson-Boltzmann/Surface

Area (QM/MM-PB/SA) method to calculate the binding free energy of c-Abl human tyrosine kinase by combining the QM and MM principles where the ligand is treated quantum mechanically and the rest of the receptor CBL0137 by classical molecular mechanics. To study the role of entropy and the flexibility of the protein ligand complex in a solvated environment, molecular dynamics calculations are performed using a hybrid QM/MM approach. This work shows that the results of the QM/MM approach are strongly correlated with the binding affinity. The QM/MM interaction energy in our reported study confirms the importance of electronic and polarization contributions, which are often neglected 3-MA chemical structure in classical MM-PB/SA calculations. Moreover, a comparison of semi-empirical methods like DFTB-SCC, PM3, MNDO, MNDO-PDDG, and PDDG-PM3 is also performed. The results of the study show that the implementation of a DFTB-SCC semi-empirical Hamiltonian that is derived from DFT gives better results than other methods. We have

performed such studies using the AMBER molecular dynamic package for the first time. The calculated binding free energy is also in agreement with the experimentally determined binding affinity for c-Abl tyrosine kinase complex with Imatinib.”
“The objective of this study was to determine the effect of municipal abattoir conditions and animal factors on avoidance-related behaviour (AB) of sheep at slaughter, bleeding times (BT) and mutton quality. The behaviour of 66 castrates and 19 ewes of different age categories was observed at three stages of slaughter. Higher behaviour scores indicated higher levels of AB. Time intervals between the start of blood flow and the time the flow changed from a constant stream into drips were recorded as BT. Thirty two meat samples were obtained to measure quality variables. These were colour (L*, a* and b*), pH(24), temperature, cooking loss (CL) and tenderness. Correlations were determined between BT and meat quality variables. Animal behaviour at slaughter differed with breed, gender and age group. Avoidance behaviour was higher in the Dorper breed than in both the Merino breed and their crosses.

The only exception to this pattern was the ventromedial nucleus

The only exception to this pattern was the ventromedial nucleus. The thalamic neurons are mostly devoid of IMPACT, with the exception of the paraventricular, reuniens and reticular nuclei, and intergeniculate leaf. The brainstem displayed high levels of IMPACT. For the marmoset, IMPACT expression in the brain is not

as prominent when compared to other organs. In the marmoset brain the pattern of IMPACT expression was similar to rodents in most areas, except for the very strong labeling of the Purkinje cells, the lack of IMPACT-positive neurons in the nucleus reuniens, and weak labeling of interneurons in the hippocampus. GCN1, the activator of GCN2 to which IMPACT binds, Selleck SBE-β-CD is widely distributed in all neuronal populations, and all IMPACT-positive cells were also GCN1-positive. The data presented herein suggest that IMPACT may

be involved in biochemical homeostatic mechanisms that would prevent GCN2 activation and therefore ATF4 (CREB-2) synthesis in neurons.”
“Background: Growth in fishes is regulated via many environmental and physiological factors and is shaped by the genetic background of each individual. Previous microarray studies of salmonid growth have examined fish experiencing either muscle wastage or accelerated growth patterns following refeeding, or the influence of growth hormone and transgenesis. This study determines the gene expression profiles of genetically unmanipulated large and small fish from a domesticated salmonid strain reared on a typical feeding regime. Gene expression profiles of white muscle and liver from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) from two seasonal spawning groups NVP-BSK805 (September and December lots) within a single strain were examined when the fish were 15 months of age to assess the influence of season (late fall vs. onset of spring) and body size (large vs. small).\n\nResults: CA3 Although IGFBP1 gene expression

was up-regulated in the livers of small fish in both seasonal lots, few expression differences were detected in the liver overall. Faster growing Dec. fish showed a greater number of differences in white muscle expression compared to Sept. fish. Significant differences in the GO Generic Level 3 categories ‘response to external stimulus’, ‘establishment of localization’, and ‘response to stress’ were detected in white muscle tissue between large and small fish. Larger fish showed up-regulation of cytoskeletal component genes while many genes related to myofibril components of muscle tissue were up-regulated in small fish. Most of the genes up-regulated in large fish within the ‘response to stress’ category are involved in immunity while in small fish most of these gene functions are related to apoptosis.\n\nConclusions: A higher proportion of genes in white muscle compared to liver showed similar patterns of up-or down-regulation within the same size class across seasons supporting their utility as biomarkers for growth in rainbow trout. Differences between large and small Sept.

Findings: DNA and RNA were extracted from nine MCCs to detect

\n\nFindings: DNA and RNA were extracted from nine MCCs to detect the presence of MCPyV. Viral large T gene (LT1 and LT3), and viral

capsid gene (VP1) were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based methods, and the amplified PCR products were subjected to direct sequencing. The presence of viral T antigen and/or viral capsid DNA sequences was demonstrated in eight of the nine MCC lesions, whereas RNA transcripts were detected in three MCCs.\n\nConclusions: These findings indicate a potential role of MCPyV in the pathogenesis of at least a subset of MCCs.”
“Although evidence from family studies suggest that genetic factors play an important role in mediating obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), results from genetic case-control association analyses have been

inconsistent. Discrepant findings may be attributed to the lack of phenotypic resolution, and learn more population stratification. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role that the val66met IPI-145 chemical structure variant within the gene encoding brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) may play in mediating the development of selected OCD subtypes accounting for the aforementioned confounding factors. One hundred and twelve OCD subjects and 140 controls were selected from the South African Afrikaner population. A significant association was observed in the male subgroup, with the met66 allele implicated as the risk allele in the development of OCD. This allele was also found to be associated with an earlier age at onset of OCD in males. On the other hand, the val66val genotype was associated with more severe OCD in the female population. No evidence of population stratification was observed in Afrikaner control subjects. These preliminary results point towards genetically distinct characteristics Selleckchem AG-881 of OCD mediated by dysfunctions

in BDNF. The present investigation forms part of ongoing research to elucidate the genetic components involved in the aetiology of OCD and OCD-related characteristics.”
“Background It has been widely demonstrated that endothelial progenitor cells are involved in several diseases and that they have therapeutic implications. In order to define the altered pulmonary vascular homeostasis in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, we sought to observe the level and functions of circulating endothelial progenitor cells in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.\n\nMethods The total study population included 20 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and 20 control subjects. The number of circulating endothelial progenitor cells (CD34(+)/CD133(+)/VEGFR-2(+) cells) was counted by flow cytometry. Circulating endothelial progenitor cells were also cultured in vitro and characterized by uptake of Dil-acLDL, combining with UEA-I, and expression of von Willebrand factor and endothelial nitric oxide synthase.

12 2%), and in patients with more angiographic thrombus (42 5% vs

12.2%), and in patients with more angiographic thrombus (42.5% vs. 4.9%, p=0.001). Final angiographic success (<30% residual narrowing post final treatment) was similar between ELA and SH (92.5% vs. 100%, respectively, p=0.12). Selleck GDC-973 Bailout stenting was significantly higher with ELA vs. SH (50.0% vs. 24.4%, p=0.022). At 1 year, TLR had occurred

in 48.7% of the ELA patients vs. 31.7% of the SH cases (p=0.171). Regression analysis confirmed that SH was a predictor of TLR at 1 year (hazard ratio 2.679,95% CI 1.015 to 7.073, p=0.047).\n\nConclusion: Both SH and ELA continue to have a high TLR rate in treating ISR of the femoral and popliteal arteries. A higher rate of delayed failure is seen with SH and an earlier, steeper loss of TLR-free survival is seen with ELA.”
“Atrazine is an herbicide of the s-triazine family that is used primarily as a nitrogen source by degrading microorganisms. While many catabolic pathways for xenobiotics are subjected to catabolic high throughput screening assay repression by preferential

carbon sources, atrazine utilization is repressed in the presence of preferential nitrogen sources. This phenomenon appears to restrict atrazine elimination in nitrogen-fertilized soils by indigenous organisms or in bioaugmentation approaches. The mechanisms of nitrogen control have been investigated in the model strain Pseudomonas sp. ADP. Expression of atzA, atzB ad atzC, involved in the conversion of atrazine in cyanuric acid, is constitutive. The atzDEF operon, encoding the enzymes responsible for cyanuric acid mineralization, is a target for general nitrogen control. Regulation

of atzDEF involves a complex interplay between the global regulatory elements of general nitrogen control and the pathway-specific INCB024360 chemical structure LysR-type regulator AtzR. In addition, indirect evidence suggests that atrazine transport may also be a target for nitrogen regulation in this strain. The knowledge about regulatory mechanisms may allow the design of rational bioremediation strategies such as biostimulation using carbon sources or the use of mutant strains impaired in the assimilation of nitrogen sources for bioaugmentation.”
“Raman and electronic spectra of the [3,5-bis(dicyanomethylene)cyclopentane-1,2,4-trionate] dianion, the croconate violet (CV), are reported in solutions of ionic liquids based on imidazolium cations. Different normal modes of the CV anion, nu (C=O), nu (CO) + nu (CC) + nu (CCN), and nu(C N), were used as probes of solvation characteristics of ionic liquids, and were compared with spectra of CV in common solvents. The spectra of CV in ionic liquids are similar to those in dichloromethane solution, but distinct from those in protic solvents such as ethanol or water. The UV-vis spectra of CV in ionic liquids strongly suggest pi-pi interactions between the CV anion and the imidazolium cation. Copyright (C) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

An androgen receptor antagonist (flutamide) inhibited this growth

An androgen receptor antagonist (flutamide) inhibited this growth-promoting effect, and the highest concentration resulted in atresia of follicles, implicating androgens as survival factors at this stage. Testosterone (T) was less effective than 11-KT in promoting growth, but blocking aromatization with exemestane resulted in a growth VS-4718 manufacturer response similar to that of 11-KT. Estradiol-17beta (E2) had no effect on growth at this stage. After 21 days of culture, E2 was the most potent steroid in increasing the number of follicles containing cortical alveoli and the number of cortical alveoli within those follicles. At the early cortical alveolus stage, low doses of E2 promoted

ROCK inhibitor growth and strongly stimulated synthesis of cortical alveoli, actions that were inhibited by an estrogen receptor antagonist (tamoxifen). 11-KT displayed moderate growth-promoting effects, and 11-KT and T stimulated moderate to substantial increases in abundance of cortical alveoli. This study shows that the predominant role of androgens is the promotion of growth of late perinucleolar-stage follicles, while E2 stimulates both the growth and accumulation of cortical alveoli in early cortical alveolus-stage follicles.”
“Background: Data on the risk stratification

of patients undergoing mitral valve (MV) surgery for non-ischemic mitral disease are sparse. The present study seeks to define them in a contemporary cohort.\n\nMethods: 193 consecutive patients referred to non-ischemic MV surgery were prospectively studied. Baseline characteristics and the type of surgery were analyzed with regard to operative and late mortality as well as functional outcome.\n\nResults: 129 patients underwent MV replacement and 64 MV repair. MV replacement patients presented with more symptoms (p=0.010), higher EuroSCORE (6.1 versus 5.6;p=0.009), more frequently underwent additional valve surgery (7.8 versus 0%; p=0.003) and were more frequently female (p=0.048). Operative mortality was 3.1%, two thirds of operative deaths

had additional surgery of the tricuspid valve (p=0.019). Patients were followed for 5.2 +/- 2.7 years. 1-, 3-, BYL719 nmr 5-and 7-year survival rates were 93-, 91-, 82-, and 79% in MV replacement patients versus 100-, 98-, 96-, and 89% in patients with MV repair (p=0.015). However, by multivariate logistic regression, overall mortality was determined by additional surgery of the tricuspid valve (p=0.0103), multivessel coronary disease (p=0.026), and age (p<0.0001), but not by the type of surgery (p=0.066). Furthermore, the type of surgery did not influence functional outcome (p=0.515).\n\nConclusions: Apart from age and coronary artery disease the need for additional tricuspid valve surgery significantly determines the outcome of non-ischemic MV surgery.

In addition to disengaging beneficial adaptive responses in the b

In addition to disengaging beneficial adaptive responses in the brain, sedentary overindulgent lifestyles promote obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease, all of which may increase the risk of cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease. It is therefore important to embrace the reality of the requirements for exercise, intermittent Selleckchem GM6001 fasting and critical thinking for optimal brain health throughout life, and to recognize the dire consequences for our aging population of failing to implement such brain-healthy lifestyles. Published by Elsevier B.V.”
“The liver is constantly exposed to antigens present in the blood and to particulate antigens delivered from the

gut. To maintain effective levels of immune surveillance and yet tolerate food antigens, the hepatic environment has become highly specialised. A QNZ low flow environment exists within the hepatic sinusoids that not only facilitates the exchange of toxins and nutrients within the liver parenchyma, but also provides an ideal niche for the recruitment of leukocytes. One such adhesion molecule involved in this process, the vascular adhesion protein-1 (VAP-1), is unusual in the context of the leukocyte adhesion cascade in that it is both an adhesion molecule and a primary amine oxidase.

In this review, we examine the biological functions of VAP-1 and examine what role this molecule might play in the establishment and progression of chronic

liver disease.”
“Detection of proteinaceous toxins in complex heterogeneous mixtures requires highly specific and sensitive methods. Multiplex technology employing multiple antibodies that recognize different epitopes on Bcr-Abl inhibitor a toxin provides built-in confirmatory analysis as part of the initial screen and thereby increases the reliability associated with both presumptive positive and negative results. Polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies were obtained for abrin, botulinum toxins, ricin, and Staphylococcus enterotoxins A, B, and C (SEA, SEB, and SEC). Food samples were spiked with the toxins either individually or mixed and analyzed following 40-fold dilution. Abrin, botulinum toxin A complex, ricin, and SEB displayed limits of detection in the original food samples ranging from 0.03 to 1.3 mu g/mL, from 0.03 to 0.07 mu g/mL, from 0.01 to 0.1 mu g/mL, and from <0.01 to 0.03 mu g/mL, respectively. Redundancy, that is, multiple antibodies for each toxin, some recognizing different epitopes or displaying different binding affinities, provided a “fingerprint” for the presence of the toxins and built-in confirmation, thus reducing the likelihood of false-positive and false-negative results. Inclusion of internal controls, including a unique protein, helped control for variations in dilution.