R = 1 86 (1 43, 2 41)], Cytomegalovirus

R = 1.86 (1.43, 2.41)], Cytomegalovirus NVP-LDE225 in vivo (CMV) infection

[R.R = 1.47 (0.99, 2.17)], cholesterol levels [WMD = 19.71 (13.7, 25.7)], the number of patients that received the allocated treatment [O.R = 1.55 (1.17, 2.05)], severe acute rejection [R.R = 1.71 (1.14, 2.54)] and overall acute rejection [R.R = 1.31 (1.09, 1.58)] (when steroids were replaced in the steroid-free arm). Taking RCTs into account independently when steroids were not replaced, overall acute rejection was favoring the steroid-based arm [R.R = 0.75 (0.58, 0.98)]. Studies addressing exclusively transplanted HCV patients demonstrated a significant advantage of steroid-free protocols considering HCV recurrence [R.R

= 1.15 (1.01, 1.13)], acute graft hepatitis [O.R = 3.15 (1.18, 8.40)], and treatment failure [O.R = 1.87 (1.33, 2.63)]. No unfavorable effects were observed after steroid withdrawal during short-term follow-up. On the contrary, significant advantages were documented.”
“Background: MB2 protein is a sporozoite surface antigen on the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. MB2 was identified by screening a P. falciparum sporozoite cDNA expression library using immune sera from a protected donor immunized via the bites of P. falciparum-infected irradiated mosquitoes. It is not known whether natural exposure to P. falciparum also induces the anti-MB2 response and if this response differs from that in protected individuals immunized via the bites of P. click here falciparum infected irradiated mosquitoes. The anti-MB2 antibody response may be

part of a robust protective response against the sporozoite.

Methods: Fragments of polypeptide regions of MB2 were constructed as recombinant fusions sandwiched between glutathione S-transferase and a hexa histidine tag for bacterial expression. The hexa histidine tag affinity purified proteins were used to immunize rabbits and the polyclonal sera evaluated in an in vitro inhibition of sporozoite invasion assay. The proteins were also used in immunoblots this website with sera from a limited number of donors immunized via the bites of P. falciparum infected irradiated mosquitoes and plasma and serum obtained from naturally exposed individuals in Kenya.

Results: Rabbit polyclonal antibodies targeting the non-repeat region of the basic domain of MB2 inhibited sporozoites entry into HepG2-A16 cells in vitro. Analysis of serum from five human volunteers that were immunized via the bites of P. falciparum infected irradiated mosquitoes that developed immunity and were completely protected against subsequent challenge with non-irradiated parasite also had detectable levels of antibody against MB2 basic domain. In contrast, in three volunteers not protected, anti-MB2 antibodies were below the level of detection.

Recent findings

After liver transplantation, recipient

Recent findings

After liver transplantation, recipients generally experience clinically significant, sustained improvement in their physical, social and emotional well being. However, a sizeable minority of patients do experience excess morbidity that may benefit from ongoing surveillance and/or intervention. There is growing body of research that describes risks associated with liver transplantation, which can be useful aids to better inform decision making by patients, clinicians, payers, and policy makers. In contrast, there has been a

relative lack of empirical data on transplant patient safety vulnerabilities, placing the field of surgery in stark contrast to other high-risk industries, wherein such assessments inform continuous process improvement.


Health services and outcomes research has grown in importance in the liver transplantation literature, but several important LCL161 cell line questions remain unanswered that merit programmatic, interdisciplinary research.”
“Objectives: The psychosocial impacts of a cancer diagnosis include reduced quality of life, poorer inter-personal relationships, hopelessness and mental illness. Worse

outcomes, including mortality rates have been found for single men with cancer compared with women and partnered men. The aim of this systematic review was to examine the effectiveness of post-treatment Crenigacestat ic50 psychosocial and behaviour change interventions for adult men with cancer, in order to inform the development of an intervention. A focus on single men was intended.

Methods: Ten databases were searched via Ovid and Web of Science. Papers were systematically extracted by title, abstract and full paper according to the inclusion/exclusion criteria. Full papers were assessed by two authors. Inclusion criteria: participants at any stage of a cancer diagnosis, >= 50% male and aged 18+; psychosocial and/or behavioural post-treatment interventions, using any format; a one three level of evidence. Couple/carer/family interventions were excluded.

Results: From 9948 studies initially identified, 11 were finally included

in the review. They implemented cognitive behaviour therapy, hypnosis Ro 61-8048 nmr or psychoeducational interventions. All studies had some positive results, however, lack of reporting of intervention content and methodological issues limit the findings. No studies intervened with single men, and none provided comparative outcomes for marital status.

Conclusions: Effectiveness of interventions was difficult to assess as, while all had benefits, their generalisability was limited due to methodological and reporting limitations. Improved reporting procedures are required to allow for replication. Copyright (C) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.”
“Objective: To develop a knowledge assessment tool to assess baseline knowledge and current practice regarding maternal-fetal medicine.

The LMs were characterized by release studies, scanning electron

The LMs were characterized by release studies, scanning electron microscopy, and powder X-ray diffractometry. The BMDBM and OCR loading was 15.2% and 10.6%, respectively. In order to reproduce the conditions prevalent in commercial sunscreen products, the photoprotective efficacy of the LMs was evaluated after their introduction in a model cream (oil-in-water emulsion) containing a mixture of UVA and UVB filters. A small but statistically significant decrease in BMDBM photodegradation was obtained when the UVA filter was encapsulated this website alone into the LMs (the extent of degradation was 28.6% +/- 2.4 for non-encapsulated BMDBM and 26.0% +/- 2.5 for BMDBM-loaded microparticles).

On the other hand, the co-loading of OCR in the LMs produced a more marked reduction in the light-induced decomposition selleckchem of microencapsulated BMDBM (the UVA filter loss was 21.5% +/- 2.2). Therefore,

incorporation in lipid microparticles of BMDBM together with the sunscreen OCR is more effective in enhancing the UVA filter photostability than LMs loaded with BMDBM alone.”
“Plasma NT-proBNP has previously been evaluated in dogs with degenerative mitral valve disease (DMVD). However, reference intervals (RI) established according to the Clinical Laboratory and Standards Institute (CLSI) recommendations have never been provided. The objectives of this prospective study were to assess effects of breed, body weight, age, and sex on plasma NT-proBNP, and to establish RI according to CLSI for this biomarker in a large population of dogs predisposed to DMVD.

183 Healthy small-sized dogs from 7 breeds were included. Assays were performed

by ELISA. Effects of covariates were Copanlisib order tested using a general linear model. Although a sex effect was demonstrated (P = 0.01), no significant effect of breed, body weight or age was shown. The proposed RI was 157-2842 pmol/L. 7% of dogs had plasma NT-proBNP >2617 pmol/L, and were considered as outliers despite normal cardiovascular examination. In conclusion, plasma NT-proBNP may be high in a few healthy small-sized dogs. Crown Copyright (C) 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Study Design. Case description.

Objective. To clinically and radiographically describe a traumatic spinal epidural hematoma (TSEH) without adjacent spinal column fracture or soft tissue injury that completely resolved, without surgical intervention.

Summary of Background Data. Symptomatic TSEH is an infrequent condition after spinal trauma, accounting for 0.5% to 1.7% of cases. It can result in permanent neurologic deficits if not treated in a timely and appropriate manner.

Methods. A 50-year-old man presented with progressive lower motor weakness and sensory change at 2 days after blunt trauma to the upper back area. Neurologic examination revealed paraplegia and hypesthesia below the T4 sensory dermatome.

(C) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc J Appl Polym Sci 113: 2282-2286,

(C) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 113: 2282-2286, 2009″
“In this paper we report phonon dynamics Citarinostat in chemically synthesized Zn1-xMgxO (0 <= x <= 0.07) and Zn1-yCdyO (0 <= y <= 0.03) alloy nanostructures of sizes similar to 10 nm using nonresonant Raman and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy. Substitution by Mg makes the unit cell compact while Cd substitution leads to unit cell expansion. On alloying, both A(1) (LO) and E-1 (LO) mode of wurtzite ZnO show blueshift for Zn1-xMgxO and

redshift for Zn1-yCdyO alloy nanostructures due to mass defect and volume change induced by the impurity atoms. Significant shift has been observed in E-1 (LO) mode for Zn1-xMgxO (73 cm(-1) for x=0.07) and Zn1-yCdyO (17 cm(-1) for y=0.03) nanostructures. The variation in Zn(Mg,Cd)-O bond length determined from the blue- (red-) shift of IR bands on alloying with Mg (Cd) is consistent

with their respective ionic sizes and the structural changes predicted by x-ray diffraction study. However, on progressive alloying one can detect phase segregation (due to presence of interstitial Mg and Cd ions) in the alloy nanostructures for relatively higher Mg and Cd concentrations. This is confirmed by the gradual absence of the characteristic IR and Raman bands of wurtzite ZnO near 400-600 cm(-1) as well as by x-ray EX 527 Epigenetics inhibitor and TEM studies. (C) 2009 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3243341]“
“Objective-To investigate the effect of intraoperative extradural morphine administration on postoperative analgesia in dogs undergoing thoracolumbar spinal surgery to treat disk extrusion.

Design-Prospective clinical trial.

Animals-26 client-owned dogs undergoing thoracolumbar spinal surgery.

Procedures-Animals were randomly allocated to receive morphine (0.1 mg/kg [0.045 mg/lb], extradurally) or no treatment (control group). Following learn more preanesthetic medication with methadone (0.25 mg/kg [0.11 mg/lb], IM), anesthesia was induced with propofol and maintained with isoflurane or sevoflurane in oxygen.

Lidocaine and fentanyl were administered during surgery in both groups at fixed rates. In the morphine administration group, morphine was splashed over the dura mater immediately prior to wound closure. Postoperative analgesia was assessed for 48 hours by assessors unaware of group allocation, and methadone was administered as rescue analgesic. Demographic characteristics, urinary output, days of hospitalization, and perioperative use of analgesics were compared via a Mann-Whitney U test.

Results-Demographic data were similar between groups. In the morphine administration group, 2 of 13 dogs required postoperative methadone, and in the control group, methadone was administered to 11 of 13 dogs. The total number of doses of methadone administered in the 48 hours after surgery was 28 in the control group and 3 in the morphine administration group.

The NSHD recruited participants at birth in 1946 and has followed

The NSHD recruited participants at birth in 1946 and has followed them at regular intervals since then, whereas the MWS recruited women in middle age. For 541 women who were participants in both studies, we used statistical measures of association

and agreement to compare self-reported MWS data on body size throughout life and reproductive history, obtained in middle age, to NSHD data measured or reported close to the relevant ages. Likely attenuation of estimates of linear disease-exposure associations due to the combined effects of random and systematic errors was quantified using regression dilution ratios (RDRs).

Results: Data from the two studies were very strongly correlated for current height, weight and body mass index, and age at menopause (Pearson r = 0.91-0.95), strongly correlated BEZ235 for birth weight, parental heights, current waist and hip circumferences and waist-to-height ratio (r = 0.67-0.80), and moderately correlated for age at menarche and waist-to-hip ratio (r = 0.52-0.57).

Self-reported categorical body size and clothes size data for various ages were moderately to strongly associated with anthropometry collected at the relevant times (Spearman correlations 0.51-0.79). Overall agreement between the studies was also good for most quantitative variables, although all exhibited both random and systematic Blebbistatin molecular weight reporting error. RDRs ranged from 0.66 to 0.86 for most variables (slight to moderate attenuation), except weight and body mass index (1.02 and 1.04, respectively; little or no attenuation), and age at menarche, birth weight and waist-to-hip ratio (0.44, 0.59 and 0.50, respectively; substantial attenuation).

Conclusions: This study provides

some evidence that self-reported data on certain anthropometric and reproductive factors may be adequate for describing disease-exposure associations in large epidemiological studies, provided that the effects of reporting errors are quantified and the results are interpreted with caution.”
“Objective: Evaluation of 3 different kinds of AZD1208 autologous substitutes for simple myringoplasty.

Study Design: Retrospective review of myringoplasty cases.

Patients: A total of 117 patients (52 women with 52 ears and 65 men with 65 ears) with an average age of 25.6 years (range, 12-51 yr) were examined. Forty-two cases exhibited large perforations, and 75 exhibited small perforations.

Intervention: Myringoplasty with temporal fascia, tragus perichondrium, or tragus cartilage-perichondrium composite grafts were randomly used in this comparative study. All the 117 operations were performed by a single surgeon.

Main Outcome Measures: Otoscopic findings as assessed by a hearing examination using a quad-frequency pure-tone average air-bone gap.

Results: Recurrent defects were not observed in the small perforation group repaired with autologous substitutes. The graft acceptance rate in this group was 100%.

Moreover, the origin of the granular sludge strongly influenced t

Moreover, the origin of the granular sludge strongly influenced the limit viscosity value according with different granules characteristics. This work confirms the ability of the rheological parameter “”limit viscosity”" as an overall parameter to describe the physico-chemical characteristics (TSS, mTOR inhibitor granulometry, origin, and charge) of anaerobic granular Sludge and showed this holds for both sieved (500 mu m) and unsieved sludges. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Objective-To determine whether gonadectomy or age at gonadectomy was associated with the risk that dogs would subsequently become overweight.


cohort study.

Animals-1,930 dogs gonadectomized between 1998 and 2001 at <= 6 months of age (n = 782), > 6 months to <= 1 year of age (861), or > 1 to <= 5 years of age (287) and 1,669 sexually intact dogs.

Procedures-Dogs were followed-up through medical records for >= 10 years or until a diagnosis of overweight (defined as overweight, obese, or having a body condition score >= 4/5) was recorded. Information

extracted included age at study entry, sex; breed, breed-size category, hospital visit frequency, and diagnosis (yes or no) of overweight or diseases that might affect body condition. Relative risk of a diagnosis of overweight was assessed among AZD8186 age groups of gonadectomized dogs and between gonadectomized and sexually intact dogs.

Results-No difference was detected among dogs grouped according to age at gonadectomy with respect to the risk of being overweight. This risk was significantly greater in gonadectomized dogs than in sexually intact dogs, but only during the first 2 years after gonadectomy. Sexually intact male dogs were approximately 40% less likely to have this diagnosis (hazard ratio, 0.61; 95% confidence interval, 0.52 to 0.72) than were sexually intact female dogs; no difference in

risk between the sexes was evident for gonadectomized dogs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Gonadectomized dogs had a greater risk of being overweight than did sexually intact dogs, but this risk was not influenced by age at gonadectomy. Opportunities exist for veterinarians selleck chemicals to provide counseling during the first years after gonadectomy to help dogs maintain a healthy weight.”
“Growth Hormone (GH) is a 22 kDa protein that has effects on growth and glucose and fat metabolisms. These effects are initiated by binding of growth hormone (GH) to growth hormone receptors (GHR) expressed in target cells. Mutations or deletions in the growth hormone receptor cause an autosomal disorder called Laron-type dwarfism (LS) characterized by high circulating levels of serum GH and low levels of insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). We analyzed the GHR gene for genetic defect in seven patients identified as Laron type dwarfism.

(C) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc J Appl Polym Sci 115: 2813-2819,

(C) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 115: 2813-2819, 2010″
“What is the underlying mechanism behind the

fat-tailed statistics observed for species abundance distributions? The two main hypotheses in the field are the adaptive (niche) theories, where species abundance reflects its fitness, and the neutral theory that assumes demographic stochasticity as the main factor determining community structure. Both explanations suggest quite similar species-abundance distributions, but very different histories: niche scenarios assume that a species population in the past was similar to the observed one, while neutral scenarios are characterized by strongly fluctuating populations. Since the genetic variations within a population depend on its abundance in the past, we present here a way to discriminate between the theories using the genetic diversity of noncoding DNA. A statistical test, based on the Fu-Li method, has been developed and enables find more such a differentiation. We have analyzed the results gathered from individual-based simulation of both types of histories Z-IETD-FMK cell line and obtained clear distinction between the Fu-Li statistics

of the neutral scenario and that of the niche scenario. Our results suggest that data for 10-50 species, with approximately 30 sequenced individuals for each species, may allow one to distinguish between these two theories.”
“A method is developed to analyze the existence and behavior of piezoelectric Love waves in a multilayered structure consisting of a piezoelectric substrate and multiple elastic layers which are isotropic, nonpiezoelectric materials. The acoustic waves and electric fields in the substrate and the layers Elafibranor order are investigated. A general dispersion equation is derived to describe the existence of Love surface waves with respect to phase velocity as a function of normalized layer thickness. An iteration formula for XN is introduced

to describe the mechanical action between the layers and the substrate at the interface. Another formula for (epsilon) over bar (LN), the equivalent permittivity of the wave-guide layers, is produced to describe the electric fields in the layers. The dispersion equation including a mass loading on the surface of the top layer is deduced, and a formula for calculating the mass sensitivity of the phase velocity is presented. We also find the dispersion equation with an electric shorted interface and introduce a formula for calculating the electromechanical coupling coefficient K-2. Numerical results illustrate the phase velocity, the mass sensitivity of the phase velocity and the electromechanical coupling coefficient as functions of the normalized layer thickness for the Love waves in a layered structure with a polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) layer and a sputtered SiO2 layer on a 90 rotated ST-cut quartz (ST-quartz) substrate. (C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.

The combined effect of the LPL gene polymorphisms and diabetes ma

The combined effect of the LPL gene polymorphisms and diabetes may contribute to the development of a subgroup of ischemic stroke.”
“Objective: To assess the long-term ototoxicity effect of platinum chemotherapy in a series of pediatric patients.

Design: A prospective cohort study.

Methods: Patients who received platinum chemotherapy were identified through review of the pharmacy records from 2000 to 2005. Audiograms pre- and post-treatment with cisplatin were noted. The patients were brought

back long after treatment for a repeat audiogram and a questionnaire to assess the impact of ototoxicity on their quality of life.

Results: Forty-nine patients received platinum MAPK Inhibitor Library screening chemotherapy. Patients’ exclusion: two had no pre-chemo audiograms, one had retinoblastoma with congenital hearing loss, three were lost to Selleck GSK621 follow up, five deceased, and seven refused participation. The total number of patients included was 31 with long-term follow up total of 21 patients. The

follow up period ranged from 1.5 to 6.6 years (median of 3.4 years). Fourty-two percent (13/31) of the patients suffered from otoxicity (3 mild, 3 moderate, 7 severe-profound). Thirty-three (7/21) of audiograms worsened on long-term follow up. Questionnaire revealed 70% subjective hearing loss with 40% requiring hearing aids.

Conclusion: Ototoxicity after platinum chemotherapy can present or worsen years after completion of therapy. Therefore, we recommend long-term follow up. Crown Copyright (C) 2010 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background and purpose: Recently, orthostatic myoclonus (OM) has been suggested as a cause of gait impairment and unsteadiness in neurodegenerative diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of orthostatic myoclonus, its clinical characteristics and the underlying associated neurological disorders.

Methods: A retrospective analysis of clinical data and electromyogram surface recordings

from subjects with unexplained unsteadiness/gait impairment was performed. Diagnosis of OM was made when a pattern of non-rhythmic bursts was observed (duration range 20-100 ms; bursts per second <= 16).

Results: Among 93 subjects studied, OM was the most frequent disorder (n = 16; 17.2%), followed AZD6244 MAPK inhibitor by orthostatic tremor (13.9%) and low frequency tremors during orthostatism (12.9%). All patients with OM complained about unsteadiness during orthostatism and/or during gait. Leg jerking was only observed by visual inspection during orthostatism in four subjects and two also presented falls. Eleven out of 16 patients (68.7%) with OM had an associated neurodegenerative disease, such as multiple system atrophy (n = 3) Parkinson’s disease (n = 2), Alzheimer’s disease (n = 2), mild cognitive impairment (n = 2) and normal pressure hydrocephalus (n = 2).

In particular, a preferential

nucleation site and directi

In particular, a preferential

nucleation site and direction-dependent pinning of domain walls are observed due to slow kinetics of metastable switching in the sample without a bottom electrode. These in situ spatially resolved observations of a first-order bias-induced phase transition reveal the mesoscopic mechanisms underpinning functionality of a wide range of multiferroic materials. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3623779]“
“Emerging CCI-779 in vitro evidence suggests that an intact DNA damage response (DDR) serves as a potent barrier to malignant transformation. Using immunohistochemistry and patient-derived biopsy samples, we investigated whether the same may hold true during oral carcinogenesis. DNA damage accumulates early in the development of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) as evidenced by the detection of surrogate DDR biomarkers gamma-H2A.X and phosphorylated CHK2-threonine-68 (phospho-CHK2(Thr68)) in epithelial hyperplasias. However, whereas gamma-H2A.X expression peaked in dysplastic epithelium, its levels were significantly reduced in OSCCs (chi(2) = 7.655; P = .02). In contrast, there was a trend toward increased phospho-CHK2(Thr68) expression with increasing severity of the pathology. Nonetheless, combined expression of the biomarkers was significantly greater in

the nontransformed tissues relative to OSCCs (chi(2) = 6.42; P = .04). Thus, our findings suggest that early therapeutic exploitation of the DDR

may be worthy of investigation as a means by which to limit OSCC development. (Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol selleckchem Oral Radiol Endod 2011;111:346-353)”
“The morphology evolution of miscible blends of a semicrystalline polyamide ACY-241 6 (PA6) and an amorphous polyamide 6Ico6T (PA6IcoT) was investigated using an internal Brabender mixer at a temperature range 220-260 degrees C. Morphology of the blends was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and laser particle analysis. Temperature rising dissolution was used to separate the different phases of the blends and the phase compositions were determined by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The particle size evolution of the dispersed phase (PA6) was calculated and agreed well with experimental observation. It was found that the particle size was quickly reduced to nanometer scale after several minutes of processing. A convection-diffusion model was adopted to study the phase evolution during meltmelt mixing stage and compute the dimension of each phase. The results strongly support the notion of existence of distinct phases during blending, whose development can be well described by the model. The dispersed phase is reduced mainly by stretching of flow, while the broadening of the blending phase can be primarily attributed to molecular diffusion.

The conversion

in each batch was above 95% and the enzyma

The conversion

in each batch was above 95% and the enzymatic activity still remained quite high after five batches of biotransformation.

CONCLUSION: The results showed that performing the conversion by this method shortened the reaction time and increased the productivity, thus demonstrating the great potential of the method for the dehydrogenation of 11 alpha-hydroxy-16 alpha,17-epoxyprogesterone. (C) 2008 Society of Chemical Industry”
“Contents To achieve optimal reproductive performance in pig herds, sows need to become pregnant as soon as possible after weaning. The aim of this study was to investigate herd and management factors associated with reproductive GF120918 supplier performance of sows after weaning. A questionnaire pertaining to sow management at weaning and herd reproductive data were collected from 76 randomly selected commercial pig herds in Belgium. Associations between the herd factors and two reproductive parameters after weaning (weaning-to-oestrous interval: WEI and percentage of repeat breeders: RB) were analysed using general linear mixed models. A separated feeding strategy of breeding gilts from 60kg onwards was significantly

associated with a shorter WEI (5.54 vs 7.28days; p=0.040). Factors significantly associated with a lower percentage of RB were housing the newly weaned sows separated from the gestating sows (7% vs 12%; p=0.003), using semen<4days after collection LCL161 mouse (79 vs 14%; p=0.014) and stimulating oestrus twice a day (8 vs 11%; p=0.025). In conclusion, some management practices, such as feeding strategy of breeding gilts, housing conditions of sows, method of oestrous stimulation and storage duration of semen, have an influence on the outcome of reproductive parameters such as weaning-to-oestrous interval R788 inhibitor and percentage of repeat breeders. These practices can be implemented rather easily by pig producers and may consequently lead to improvements of reproductive performance of sows after weaning.”
“OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy and tolerability of combination therapy of ezetimibe and atorvastatin in patients with high LDL cholesterol that

had not reached the lipid management target value with 10 mg atorvastatin monotherapy, against increasing the dose to 20 mg atorvastatin or switching to 2.5 mg rosuvastatin.

DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This was an open-label, randomized, multicenter, 3-parallel-group comparison trial at 23 community hospitals and clinics in Japan (enrollment period March 2009 to May 2010) in 125 patients with high LDL cholesterol.

INTERVENTIONS: A total of 125 Japanese patients with high LDL cholesterol level were randomized to 1 of the following 3 treatment groups: the ezetimibe (10 mg/d) and atorvastatin (10 mg/d) group, the atorvastatin (20 mg/d) group, or the rosuvastatin (2.5 mg/d) group for 12 weeks after treatment with 10 mg atorvastatin alone for 4 weeks.