Here we studied the expression and role of this enzyme after unil

Here we studied the expression and role of this enzyme after unilateral cortical stab injury in rats. In cortical sections of control rats, NTPDase3 immunoreactivity was associated with two types of fibers: thin processes, occasionally with small mushroom-like protrusions and slightly thicker fibers with more pronounced and more frequent varicosities, whereas immunopositive neuronal perycaria were never observed.

Although NTPDase3-positive thin processes and thicker fibers, by general appearance, size and shape, could be dendrites and axons, respectively, they were never immunopositive for microtubule associated protein-2 or neurofilament H subunit. Mocetinostat price Cortical stab injury induced rapid (within 4 hours) learn more focal varicose swelling that evolved over time to prominent beading of NTPDase3-positive fibers.

The NTPDase3-positive fibers in all experimental groups also abundantly express NTPDase1, ecto-5′-nucleotidase and P2X2 receptor channels. Because the brain injury causes a massive ATP release, it is reasonable to conclude that purinoreceptors and ectonucleotidases play an important role in the process of neuritic beading. (C) 2010 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Specific cytogenetic alterations and changes in DNA methylation are involved in leukemogenesis. Benzene, an established human leukemogen, is known to induce cytogenetic changes through its active metabolites including hydroquinone (HQ), but the specific alterations have not been fully characterized. Global DNA hypomethylation was reported in a population exposed to benzene, but has not been

confirmed in vitro. In this study, we examined cytogenetic changes in chromosomes 5, 7, 8, 11 and 21, and global DNA methylation in human TK6 lymphoblastoid cells treated with HQ for 48 h, and compared the HQ-induced alterations with those induced by two wellknown leukemogens, melphalan, an alkylating agent, and etoposide, a DNA topoisomerase II inhibitor. We found that rather than inducing cytogenetic alterations distinct from those induced by melphalan and etoposide, HQ induced alterations characteristic Idoxuridine of each agent. HQ induced global DNA hypomethylation at a level intermediate to melphalan (no effect) and etoposide (potent effect). These results suggest that HQ may act similar to an alkylating agent and also similar to a DNA topoisomerase II inhibitor in living cells, both of which may be potential mechanisms of benzene toxicity. In addition to cytogenetic changes, global DNA hypomethylation may be another mechanism underlying the leukemogenicity of benzene. Leukemia (2010) 24, 986-991; doi:10.1038/leu.2010.43; published online 25 March 2010″
“We studied the possible activation of a neuropeptide FF2 receptor (NPFF2R) by kisspeptins, neuropeptides derived from the mouse and human metastin or Kiss-1 precursor.

Two mAbs #10 and #11 reacted with all of the thirteen H5 strains

Two mAbs #10 and #11 reacted with all of the thirteen H5 strains tested indicating that the binding

epitopes of these mAbs were conserved among these H5 subtypes. Possible applications of these mAbs in rapid tests for H5 antigen were explored. Double antibody sandwich (DAS) ELISAs were developed using two selected mAbs #10 and #11. This DAS ELISA detects specific H5 viruses and is able to identify all thirteen H5 strains tested. Three mAbs showed reactivity with AI H5 antigen for both immunofluorescence (IF) and immunohistochemistry. A cELISA used to screen chickens that had been infected with an H5 virus was developed with mAb #9 and recombinant H5 antigen. The sera from chickens that have been infected with an H5N1 virus were examined using the cELISA. 80% of the sera from H5 infected MG-132 chickens showed a positive H5 specific antibody response at 7 days post-infection (dpi) and remained positive until the end of the experiment on day 30 (> 40% inhibition). This panel of the AI H5 specific mAbs is valuable for the development of various immunoassays. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Glycine transporter inhibitors have recently been reported to improve symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. Here we used acute ketamine in the nonhuman primate to test the effectiveness of the novel glycine

transporter inhibitor, PF-3463275, in a model of cognitive dysfunction relevant to schizophrenia.

PF-3463275 (0.01-0.17 mg/kg; subcutaneously) or a vehicle was given before the administration of ketamine (median dose of 1.0 mg/kg intramuscularly) or placebo (saline). Ketamine induced hallucinatory-like behaviors that were not reversed by PF-3463275. In contrast, all doses of PF-3463275 alleviated the deficit in spatial working memory induced by ketamine. Theses findings build upon those in patients by providing translational support for targeting glycine transporter in adjunctive treatment for cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia. NeuroReport Bcl-w 21:390-394 (C) 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health vertical bar Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.”
“The EIAgen HCV test (Adaltis Inc., Montreal, Canada) is an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for the detection of anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibodies. This study compared the performance of this test side-by-side with the current Ortho HCV 3.0 Anti-HCV assay (Ortho-Clinical Diagnostics Inc., Johnson & Johnson Company, Raritan, NY, USA). Among 2559 specimens examined, 178 were true positives, 2376 were true negatives and 5 were indeterminate. The sensitivity of the EIAgen HCV test was 100%, versus 98.3% for the Ortho HCV test, while their respective specificities were 98.1% and 98.2%. The EIAgen HCV test gave a positive predictive value of 79.8% and a negative predictive value of 100%. Overall, the concordance of this test with the Ortho HCV test was 98.2%.

Although this association was more apparent in older persons, it

Although this association was more apparent in older persons, it did not appear to be influenced by cigarette smoking.”
“The attachment of BIIB057 in vitro a sugar moiety to the 3-hydroxy group of a sterol drastically increases the size of the hydrophilic part of the lipid. It is obvious that the glycosylation of a considerable fraction of membrane-bound free sterols alters the biophysical properties of the membrane. However, the consequences of such changes in the proportions of free sterols and steryl glycosides on the biological functions of a membrane are still unclear. This is the main hurdle

in understanding the biological functions of steryl glycosides on a molecular level. The recent cloning of sterol glycosyltransferase genes from plants, fungi and bacteria has enabled genetic approaches to analyze steryl glycoside functions. Down regulation of phytosteryl beta-glycoside

biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana causes several dysfunctions in seed development. Ergosteryl beta-glycoside depleted mutants of the yeast Pichia pastoris lose their ability to degrade their peroxisomes by an autophagic mechanism called micropexophagy. KU55933 In the plant-pathogenic fungus Colletotrichum orbiculare the same defect impairs invasion of the cucumber host plants. Helicobacter pylori, a bacterium colonizing the human stomach, is unable to modulate the host’s immune response when the cholesteryl alpha-glycoside biosynthesis of the bacterium is mutated. These mutants with manipulated steryl glycoside metabolism will inspire

further studies with cell biological, biophysical and other methods that will provide us with a mechanistic understanding of steryl glycoside functions. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Objectives: Transection of the secondary chordae on the anterior leaflet of the mitral valve to relieve leaflet tethering and reduce regurgitation is an experimentally proven procedure to correct functional mitral regurgitation. In the present study, we sought to investigate whether transecting the secondary chordae would have an effect on the marginal chordal Vildagliptin force on the same leaflet.

Methods: Adult porcine mitral valves (n = 8) were studied in a pulsatile heart simulator, in which the papillary muscle positions can be precisely positioned. Miniature transducers were inserted into the anterior marginal chordae to measure the chordal forces. Each valve was studied under baseline conditions, 3 different tethering conditions (apical, apical-lateral, and apical-lateral-posterior), and after chordal cutting in the 3 tethering conditions. The temporal changes and peak and average marginal chordal forces under each condition are reported.

Results: Apical tethering increased the marginal chordal force by an average of 96% but remained unchanged after chordal cutting.

“Normal aging has been linked to impairments in gating of

“Normal aging has been linked to impairments in gating of irrelevant sensory information and neural markers of diminished cognitive processing. Whilst much of the research in this area has focussed on visual and auditory modalities

it is unclear to what degree these findings apply to somatosensation. Therefore we investigated how age impacts early event-related potentials (ERPs) arising from relevant or irrelevant vibrotactile stimuli to the fingertips. Specifically, PRT062607 we hypothesised that older adults would demonstrate reduced attention-based modulation of tactile ERPs generated at early stages of cortical somatosensory processing. In accord with previous research we also expected to observe diminished P300 responses to attended targets and behavioural deficits. selleck compound Participants received vibrotactile stimulation to the second and fifth digit on the left hand and reported target stimuli on one digit

only (as instructed) with comparisons between two age groups: (1) Young adults (age range 20-39) and (2) Older adults (age range 62-89). ERP amplitudes for the P50, N70, P100, N140 and long latency positivity (LLP) were quantified for attended and non-attended trials at several electrodes (C4, CP4, CP3 and FC4). The P300 in response to attended target stimuli was measured at CPZ. There was no effect of attention on the P50 and N70 however the P100. N140 and LLP were modulated with attention. In both age groups the P100 and LLP were more positive during trials where the stimuli were attended to, whilst the N140 was enhanced for non-attended stimuli. Comparisons between groups revealed a reduction in P100 attention-based modulation for the older adults versus the young adults. This effect

was due to a loss of suppression of the non-attended stimuli in older subjects. Moreover, the P300 was both slower and reduced in peak amplitude for older subjects in response to attended targets. Finally, older adults demonstrated impaired performance in terms of both reduced target detection accuracy and in reporting more false positives. Overall, present results reveal a deficit in suppressing irrelevant tactile information during an attention-demanding task which possibly relates to reduced markers of performance. Such a loss of inhibitory function PAK6 is consistent with age-related change associated with a decline in executive control via prefrontal regions. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Dysregulation of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) is a universal and, perhaps, causative feature of obesity. Central nervous system (CNS) circuits that regulate food intake were initially believed to be the targets for dysregulation. However, it is increasingly evident that endocannabinoids affect food intake, energy expenditure and substrate metabolism by acting on peripheral sites.

The mean and maximum aBAC during the self-administration period a

The mean and maximum aBAC during the self-administration period and the number of alcohol requests

(NOAR) were significantly higher in the FHP vs. FHN participants.

This is the first laboratory experiment demonstrating higher alcohol self-administration in FHP compared to FHN subjects. A practice session increases the sensitivity of CASE experiments for detection of subtle differences in human alcohol self-administration.”
“Bone disorders Selleck AZD0156 are of significant concern due to increase in the median age of our population. Traditionally, bone grafts have been used to restore damaged bone. Synthetic biomaterials are now being used as bone graft substitutes. These biomaterials were initially selected for structural restoration based on their biomechanical properties. Later scaffolds were engineered to be bioactive or bioresorbable to enhance tissue growth. Now scaffolds are designed to induce bone formation

and vascularization. These scaffolds are often porous, made of biodegradable materials that harbor different growth factors, drugs, genes, or stem cells. In this review, we highlight recent advances in bone scaffolds and discuss aspects that still need to be improved.”
“A deletion of similar to 20 amino acids in the stalk of neuraminidase is frequently observed upon transmission of influenza A viruses from waterfowl to domestic poultry. A pair of recombinant H7N1 viruses bearing either a short- or long-stalk neuraminidase Selleckchem Ribociclib was genetically engineered. MM-102 solubility dmso Inoculation of the long-stalk-neuraminidase virus resulted in a higher cloacal excretion in ducks and led conversely to lower-level oropharyngeal excretion in chickens, associated with a higher-level local immune response and better survival. Therefore, a short- stalk neuraminidase is a determinant of viral adaptation and virulence in chickens but is detrimental to virus replication and shedding in ducks.”
“The significance of imaging hypoxia with the PET ligand [F-18]FMISO has been demonstrated in a variety of cancers. However, the slow kinetics of [F-18]FMISO require a 2-h delay between tracer administration and patient scanning. Labelled chloroethyl sulfoxides

have shown faster kinetics and higher contrast than [F-18] FMISO in a rat model of ischemic stroke. However, these nitrogen mustard analogues are unsuitable for routine production and use in humans. Here we report on the synthesis and in vitro and in vivo evaluation of two novel sulfoxides which we synthesised from a single precursor molecule via either 2-[F-18]fluoroethyl azide click chemistry or conventional nucleophilic displacement of a chloride leaving group. The yields of the click chemistry approach were 90+/-5% of [F-18]2 based on 2-[F-18]fluoroethyl azide, and the yields for the S-N reaction were 15+/-5% of [F-18]1 based on K[F-18]F. Both radiotracers underwent metabolism in an in vitro assay using S9 liver fractions with biological half-lives of 32.

Although expression of the large viral Rep proteins contributed t

Although expression of the large viral Rep proteins contributed to some damage signaling, we observed that the full response required replication of the AAV BB-94 purchase genome. Our results demonstrate that AAV replication in the presence of Ad helper functions elicits a unique damage

response controlled by DNA-PK.”
“Bingeing is one pattern of high-dose methamphetamine (METH) abuse, which involves continuous drug taking over several days and can result in psychotic behaviors for which the brain pathology remains poorly defined. A corresponding animal model of this type of METH exposure may provide novel insights into the neurochemical and behavioral sequelae associated with this condition. Accordingly, to simulate the pharmacokinetic profile of a human METH binge exposure in rats, we used a computer-controlled, intravenous METH

procedure (dynamic infusion, DI) to overcome species differences in METH pharmacokinetics and to replicate the human 12-h plasma METH half-life. Animals were treated over 13 weeks with escalating METH doses, using DI, and then exposed to a binge in which drug was administered every 3 h for 72 h. Throughout the binge, behavioral effects included unabated intense oral stereotypies in the absence of locomotion and in the absence of sleep. Decrements in regional brain dopamine, norepinephrine, JQEZ5 and serotonin levels, measured at 1 and 10 h after the last injection

of the binge, had, with the exception of caudate-putamen dopamine and frontal cortex serotonin, recovered by 48 h. At 10 h after the last injection of the binge, [(3)H] ligand binding to dopamine and vesicular monoamine transporters in caudate-putamen were reduced by 35 and 13%, respectively. Thiamet G In a separate METH binge-treated cohort, post-binge behavioral alterations were apparent in an attenuated locomotor response to a METH challenge infusion at 24 h after the last injection of the binge. Collectively, the changes we characterized during and after a METH binge suggest that for human beings under similar exposure conditions, multiple time-dependent neurochemical deficits contribute to their behavioral profiles. Neuropsychopharmacology (2009) 34, 2430-2441; doi: 10.1038/npp.2009.73; published online 1 July 2009″
“Morbillivirus infections are characterized by severe leukopenia and immune suppression that develop even before the onset of clinical signs. To characterize in more detail the fate of the immune cells during the critical first week, we evaluated the overall viability, level of apoptosis, cell cycle status, and extent of infection in different immune tissues of ferrets inoculated with a lethal canine distemper virus (CDV) strain.

This increase was accounted for by BDNF exon 6 variant In cultur

This increase was accounted for by BDNF exon 6 variant. In cultured hippocampal neurons, application of serotonin or norepinephrine (10-50 mu M) induced increase in synaptic transmission and targeting of BDNF mRNA

in dendrites. The increased expression of BDNF in CA3 dendrites following antidepressants or exercise further supports the neurotrophin hypothesis of antidepressants action and confirms that the differential subcellular localization of BDNF mRNA splice variants provides a spatial code for a selective expression of BDNF in specific subcellular districts. This selective expression may be exploited to design more specific antidepressants. Neuropsychopharmacology (2012) 37, 1600-1611; doi:10.1038/npp.2012.5; published online 8 February 2012″
“Lipin family proteins Staurosporine are emerging as crucial regulators of lipid metabolism. In triglyceride synthesis, lipins act BAY 11-7082 cost as lipid phosphatase enzymes at the endoplasmic reticular membrane, catalyzing the dephosphorylation of phosphatidic acid to form diacylglycerol, which is the

penultimate step in this process. However, lipin proteins are not integral membrane proteins, and can rapidly translocate within the cell. In fact, emerging evidence suggests that lipins also play crucial roles in the nucleus as transcriptional regulatory proteins. Thus, lipins are poised to regulate cellular lipid metabolism at multiple regulatory nodal points. This review summarizes the history of lipin proteins, and discusses the current state of our understanding 3-oxoacyl-(acyl-carrier-protein) reductase of lipin biology.”
“Previous studies suggest disturbances of the central nervous system (CNS) in patients with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT), independently of thyroid function disorders.

In the present prospective study, neuropsychological testing was performed for the first time in 26 euthyroid patients with HT compared to 25 euthyroid patients undergoing hormonal treatment for goitre or after thyroid surgery.

We investigated executive function, attention, visual and verbal memory as well as acoustic

working memory with established neuropsychological tests and detected no significant differences between the two groups. In addition, test results were expressed as z-score which is defined as the deviation of an individual’s value from the mean value of a reference population, divided by the standard deviation of the reference population. Thereby, we found significantly more HT patients with a z-score of less than -1.5 in the d2 test than in the control group (total score I, HT vs. control group: 10 vs. 3, p = 0.0302; total score II, HT vs. control group: 11 vs. 1, p = 0.0013). The d2 test, which measures processing speed, rule compliance, and quality of performance, allows for a neuropsychological estimation of individual attention performance.

Larger studies are needed to investigate the effects of vitamin D

Larger studies are needed to investigate the effects of vitamin D supplementation on RTI prevention in various populations and to further clarify the influences of age, vitamin D dosing regimen, baseline levels of vitamin D, and study length.”
“Background: Although most pregnancies after IVF result in normal healthy outcomes, an increased risk for a number of obstetric and neonatal complications, compared to naturally conceived pregnancies, has been reported. While there are many studies that compare pregnancies after assisted reproductive techniques with spontaneously conceived pregnancies, fewer data are available that evaluate the differences between IVF and ICSI-conceived

pregnancies. The aim of our present study was, therefore, to compare obstetric and perinatal outcomes in pregnancies conceived after PF-6463922 supplier in vitro fertilization (IVF) versus intracytoplasmatic sperm injection (ICSI).

Methods: Three-hundred thirty four women who had become pregnant after an IVF or ICSI procedure resulted in a total of 530 children referred between 2003 und 2009 to the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of the Medical Wortmannin University of Vienna, a tertiary care center, and were included in this retrospective cohort study. We assessed maternal and fetal parameters in both groups (IVF and ICSI). The main study outcomes were preterm delivery, the need for neonatal intensive

care, and congenital malformations. Moreover, we compared the

course of pregnancy between both groups and the occurrence of complications that led to maternal hospitalization during pregnancy.

Results: There were 80 children conceived via ICSI and 450 children conceived via IVF.

Mean gestational age was significantly lower in the ICSI group (p = 0.001). After ICSI, the birth weight (p = 0.008) and the mean APGAR values after 1 minute and after 10 minutes else were lower compared to that of the IVF group (p = 0.016 and p = 0.047, respectively). Moreover, ICSI-conceived children had to be hospitalized more often at a neonatal intensive care unit (p = 0.004). There was no difference in pH of the umbilical artery or in major congenital malformations between the two groups. Pregnancy complications (i.e., premature rupture of membranes, cervical insufficiency, and premature uterine contractions) and the need for maternal hospitalization during pregnancy were found significantly more often after IVF (p = 0.0016 and p = 0.0095, respectively), compared to the ICSI group.

Conclusions: When comparing IVF versus ICSI-conceived pregnancies at a tertiary care center, we found the course of pregnancy to be more complicated after IVF, whereas the primary fetal outcome seemed to be better in this group than after ICSI treatment.”
“Crystalline metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are formed by reticular synthesis, which creates strong bonds between inorganic and organic units.

In Experiment 2, rats with hippocampal or fornix lesions performe

In Experiment 2, rats with hippocampal or fornix lesions performed at normal levels on the basic version of the recognition task, contrasting with the marked deficits previously

seen after perirhinal cortex lesions. Next, the training protocol was adapted (Experiment 3), and this modified version was used successfully with mice (Experiment 4). The overall findings demonstrate the efficacy of this new behavioral task and advance our understanding of object recognition.”
“Exposure to drug-paired cues can trigger addicts to relapse into drug seeking. Although the molecular AMN-107 in vivo mechanisms underlying cue-elicited cocaine seeking are incompletely understood, the protein kinase extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) is known to have an important role. Psychostimulants and their associated cues can activate ERK in medium spiny neurons of the nucleus accumbens Selleck Gemcitabine core (AcbC). These medium spiny neurons can be classified according to their projections (to ventral pallidum and/or substantia nigra) and by their mRNA expression. The present experiments were designed to determine which distinct set of AcbC projection neurons expresses phosphorylated ERK (pERK) in response to cocaine-paired contextual cues. Combined use of the retrograde label Flurogold

with immunohistochemical staining of pERK was used to show that the AcbC pERK accompanying preference for cocaine-paired contexts occurs in both the accumbens (Acb)-nigral and Acb-pallidal projections. The gene expression characteristics of the neurons expressing pERK in response to cocaine-paired cues was further investigated using combined in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry to show that AcbC pERK+ cells correspond to D1, but not preproenkephalin, mRNA+ cells. Furthermore, intra-AcbC infusion of the D1-antagonist SCH23390 attenuated cue-induced AcbC pERK expression.

In aggregate, these results indicate that (i) the D1-expressing AcbC neurons evidence long-term plasticity related to drug-cue memories and (ii) local dopamine D1 receptors are necessary for the expression of cocaine-paired cue-induced pERK in these AcbC neurons. Neuropsychopharmacology (2011) 36, 434-444; doi:10.1038/npp.2010.174; BCKDHB published online 13 October 2010″

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are beneficial micro-organisms that have been associated with several probiotic effects in both humans and animals. Here, using proteome analysis, we investigate the antitumour effects of cell-bound exopolysaccharides (cb-EPS) isolated from Lactobacillus acidophilus 606 on colon cancer cells and explore the proteins critical for their antitumour activity.

Methods and Results:

cb-EPS inhibited the proliferation of HT-29 colon cancer cells by directly affecting cell morphology and not the cell cycle.

Most significantly, trimetric G proteincoupled thermosensation, s

Most significantly, trimetric G proteincoupled thermosensation, single sensory neuron-based memory, and the orchestrated synaptic transmission system have been elucidated. (c) 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.”
“Intermittent swim stress (ISS) produces deficits in swim escape learning and increases immobility in the forced swim test (FST). A previous attempt to reverse this immobility with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), fluoxetine (FLX), was unsuccessful, but the sensitivity of this immobility to other types of antidepressants is unknown.

In experiment 1, we evaluate the ability of the norepinephrine

CUDC-907 concentration (NE) selective reuptake inhibitor (NSRI), desipramine (DES), to reverse the ISS-induced immobility in the FST compared to confined controls (CC), while in experiment

2, we test the efficacy of either the SSRI or NSRI to reverse the immobility produced by either ISS or continuous swim (CS)/FST.

Rats were exposed to their respective behavioral pretreatment (ISS, CS/FST, or CC) and were then injected with an antidepressant or saline solution 23.5, 5, and 1 h prior to the FST.

In experiment 1, DES reduced immobility and increased the climbing behavior in the ISS group without altering these behaviors in the CC, while in experiment 2, the CS/FST-induced immobility was reduced by both antidepressants (i.e., FLX and DES), while the ISS-induced immobility was only affected by DES.

These PRN1371 in vivo results suggest that the ISS-induced immobility is mediated through the NE system and may represent a model for atypical depression.”
“Rotavirus nonstructural protein NSP2, a functional octamer, is critical for the formation of viroplasms, which are exclusive sites for replication and packaging of the segmented double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)

rotavirus genome. As a component of replication intermediates, NSP2 is also implicated in various replication-related activities. In addition to sequence-independent single-stranded RNA-binding and helix-destabilizing activities, NSP2 exhibits monomer-associated nucleoside and 5′ RNA triphosphatase (NTPase/RTPase) activities Pregnenolone that are mediated by a conserved H225 residue within a narrow enzymatic cleft. Lack of a 5′ gamma-phosphate is a common feature of the negative-strand RNA [(-)RNA] of the packaged dsRNA segments in rotavirus. Strikingly, all (-)RNAs (of group A rotaviruses) have a 5′ GG dinucleotide sequence. As the only rotavirus protein with 5′ RTPase activity, NSP2 is implicated in the removal of the gamma-phosphate from the rotavirus (-)RNA. To understand how NSP2, despite its sequence-independent RNA-binding property, recognizes (-) RNA to hydrolyze the gamma-phosphate within the catalytic cleft, we determined a crystal structure of NSP2 in complex with the 5′ consensus sequence of minus-strand rotavirus RNA.