Cell proliferation occurred after BGJ398 molecular weight 2~3 days of culture in the ATRA/growth factor group. The cell growth in this group was almost the same as in the growth

factor group, but the number and volume of the cell spheres formed were slightly smaller than those in the growth factor group. Cell proliferation also occurred after 2~3 days in the ATRA group, with the cell spheres exhibiting suspended growth, but only cell masses consisting of dozens of cells were observed during the whole process. The volume of the cell spheres was larger than that in the control group, but obviously smaller than that in the growth factor group and the ATRA/growth factor group. The cell proliferation in the control group was relatively slower, and the formed colonies were smaller, merely consisting of a dozen cells (Fig. 3). No obvious adherent differentiation was observed in any group. With the mean of optical density values measured for each group as the vertical axis, and the growth days as the horizontal axis, the growth curves of BTSCs for different groups were plotted (Fig. 4) to

compare the cell proliferation rates of the four groups. It can be observed that, on the 1st-3rd day, the growth curves of all the four groups rise slowly, with an insignificant difference in the cell proliferation rate. From the 3rd day, the cell proliferation obviously become Small molecule library molecular weight more rapid, and the growth curves of the four groups begin to separate from each other. The curve is steep during the 5th~7th days, indicating the peak of proliferation. Cell proliferation is slowest in the control group, obviously faster in the ATRA group, and fastest in the growth factor group, and the proliferation rate of the ATRA/growth factor group is slightly lower than that of the growth factor group, but significantly higher than that of the ATRA group. It is indicated that ATRA had a promotive effect on the proliferation of suspended BTSCs, but had no obvious synergistic or antagonistic effect with

the growth factor. Figure 3 The volume of the cell spheres Methocarbamol formed in different group(Inverted phase-contrast microscope, × 400). 2A: the control group. 2B: the ATRA group. 2C: the ATRA/growth factor group. 2D: the growth factor group. Figure 4 Growth curves of BTSCs in different groups(the mean of optical density values measured for each group as the vertical axis, and the growth days as the horizontal axis). The results are shown as mean ± SD of four different experiment. Data of each day was analyzed by one-way ANOVA with Dunnett t test. The growth curves of the ATRA group, ATRA/growth factor group and growth factor group rise faster than that of the control group(P < 0.01). While there were no statistically significant between the ATRA/growth factor group and growth factor group(P > 0.05).