5 × 10−3 m s−1), is the diameter of inert glass particles (6 × 10−4 m), the Re criterion was estimated as 1.7 and the Sc criteria are 562 (Na+) and 450 (Cl−). Thus, Sh ≈ 15 both for cations and anions, and at last, k m = 3.7 × 10−5 m s−1 (Na+) and 4.6 × 10−5 m s−1 (Cl−). The process was performed taking into consideration the lower k m value, i.e. at 25 A m−2, and initial NaCl concentration in the solution (10 mol m−3). The results are given in Table 3.
Table 3 Electrodialysis of the solution containing NaCl Sample After 5 min After 30 min https://www.selleckchem.com/products/chir-98014.html After 60 min RD,% CE,% RD,% CE,% RD,% CE,% TiO2 1 5 7 5 9 3 TiO2-HZD-2 17 70 41 28 54 18 TiO2-HZD-7 23 95 75 51 95 34 As seen from the table, the current efficiency (CE) decreased in time due to solution depletion. The highest removal degree (RD) and current efficiency were found for the TiO2-HZD-7 membrane. This membrane is characterized by the smallest size of pores, which Luminespib cell line determine charge selectivity. Moreover, the highest surface charge density is reached for this separator. Conclusions The composite inorganic membranes, which contain the EGFR activity active layer of the HZD layer inside coarse-pored ceramics, have been obtained. This has been proved by means of SEM,
TEM and SAXS technique. The SCP method followed by resolution of differential pore size distribution, calculations according to homogeneous and heterogeneous geometrical models and potentiometric measurements allow us to determine
Parvulin structure of composite membranes. The approach, which is based on analysis of differential pore size distribution, gives a possibility to recognize each component of a composite. Application of integral pore distribution [12–14] is difficult, when the particle sizes of the constituents are close to each other. The ceramic matrix is formed mainly with particles of micron size, which are distorted due to annealing and pressure. The ion exchanger consists of nanosized particles, the radius of which is 3 to 5 nm. The nanoparticles form aggregates (r p = 20 to 23 nm). The larger particles form pores, which are responsible for charge selectivity. Radii of narrowing of these pores have been estimated as 4 to 8 nm; this is in agreement with porosimetry data. Charge selectivity is also due to ion exchange ability of HZD, which is retained under thermal treatment of the membranes. The materials can be used for electromembrane separation; the modified membranes demonstrate higher desalination degree and current efficiency in comparison with the pristine separator. Mechanical stability of the active layer is provided by its location inside pores of ceramics. As expected, the membranes can be used in aggressive media as well as for treatment of solutions containing organic substances.