Most significantly, trimetric G proteincoupled thermosensation, s

Most significantly, trimetric G proteincoupled thermosensation, single sensory neuron-based memory, and the orchestrated synaptic transmission system have been elucidated. (c) 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.”
“Intermittent swim stress (ISS) produces deficits in swim escape learning and increases immobility in the forced swim test (FST). A previous attempt to reverse this immobility with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), fluoxetine (FLX), was unsuccessful, but the sensitivity of this immobility to other types of antidepressants is unknown.

In experiment 1, we evaluate the ability of the norepinephrine

CUDC-907 concentration (NE) selective reuptake inhibitor (NSRI), desipramine (DES), to reverse the ISS-induced immobility in the FST compared to confined controls (CC), while in experiment

2, we test the efficacy of either the SSRI or NSRI to reverse the immobility produced by either ISS or continuous swim (CS)/FST.

Rats were exposed to their respective behavioral pretreatment (ISS, CS/FST, or CC) and were then injected with an antidepressant or saline solution 23.5, 5, and 1 h prior to the FST.

In experiment 1, DES reduced immobility and increased the climbing behavior in the ISS group without altering these behaviors in the CC, while in experiment 2, the CS/FST-induced immobility was reduced by both antidepressants (i.e., FLX and DES), while the ISS-induced immobility was only affected by DES.

These PRN1371 in vivo results suggest that the ISS-induced immobility is mediated through the NE system and may represent a model for atypical depression.”
“Rotavirus nonstructural protein NSP2, a functional octamer, is critical for the formation of viroplasms, which are exclusive sites for replication and packaging of the segmented double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)

rotavirus genome. As a component of replication intermediates, NSP2 is also implicated in various replication-related activities. In addition to sequence-independent single-stranded RNA-binding and helix-destabilizing activities, NSP2 exhibits monomer-associated nucleoside and 5′ RNA triphosphatase (NTPase/RTPase) activities Pregnenolone that are mediated by a conserved H225 residue within a narrow enzymatic cleft. Lack of a 5′ gamma-phosphate is a common feature of the negative-strand RNA [(-)RNA] of the packaged dsRNA segments in rotavirus. Strikingly, all (-)RNAs (of group A rotaviruses) have a 5′ GG dinucleotide sequence. As the only rotavirus protein with 5′ RTPase activity, NSP2 is implicated in the removal of the gamma-phosphate from the rotavirus (-)RNA. To understand how NSP2, despite its sequence-independent RNA-binding property, recognizes (-) RNA to hydrolyze the gamma-phosphate within the catalytic cleft, we determined a crystal structure of NSP2 in complex with the 5′ consensus sequence of minus-strand rotavirus RNA.

Contralateral SI focalisation was also significantly reduced in t

Contralateral SI focalisation was also significantly reduced in the schizophrenia group compared to both healthy groups. SI focalisation was negatively correlated with severity of disorganisation symptoms in the schizophrenia group. These results support the hypothesis that a generalised loss of functional specialisation is fundamental to schizophrenia. (C) Peptide 17 nmr 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The ventral

pallidum (VP) is a major recipient of inhibitory projections from nucleus accumbens (Acb) neurons that differentially express the reward (enkephalin) and aversion (dynorphin)-associated opioid peptides. The cannabinoid-1 receptor (CB1R) is present in Acb neurons expressing each of these peptides, but its location in the VP is not known. To address this question, we used electron microscopic dual immunolabeling of the CB1R and either dynorphin 1-8 (Dyn) or Met(5)-enkephalin (ME) in the VP of C57BL/6J mice, a species in which CB1R gene deletion

produces a reward deficit. We also used similar methods to determine the relationship between the CB1R and N-acylphosphatidylethanolamine (NAPE)-hydrolyzing phospholipase D (NAPE-PLD), an anandamide-synthesizing enzyme located presynaptically in other limbic brain regions. CB1R-immunogold was principally localized to cytoplasmic endomembranes and synaptic or extrasynaptic plasma membranes of axonal profiles, but was also affiliated with postsynaptic membrane specializations in dendrites. The axonal profiles included many single CB1R-labeled axon terminals as well as terminals containing CB1R-immunogold and either Dyn find more or ME immunoreactivity. JNJ-64619178 concentration Dually labeled terminals comprised 26% of

all Dyn- and 17% of all ME-labeled axon terminals. Both single- and dual-labeled terminals formed mainly inhibitory-type synapses, but almost 16% of these terminals formed excitatory synapses. Approximately 60% of the CB1R-labeled axonal profiles opposed or converged with axon terminals containing NAPE-PLO immunoreactivity. We conclude that CB1Rs in the mouse VP have subcellular distributions consistent with on demand activation by endocannabinoids that can regulate the release of functionally opposed opioid peptides and also modulate inhibitory and excitatory transmission. (C) 2012 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Polymorphic genes have been linked to the risk of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Surrogate markers for a low burden of early childhood infections are also related to increased risk for developing childhood ALL. It remains uncertain, whether siblings of children with ALL have an increased risk of developing ALL. This international collaboration identified 54 sibships with two (N = 51) or more (N = 3) cases of childhood ALL (ages <18 years). The 5-year event-free survival for 61 patients diagnosed after 1 January 1990 was 0.83 +/- 0.05.

An NMDAR antagonist, MK-801, induced hyperactivity in normal mice

An NMDAR antagonist, MK-801, induced hyperactivity in normal mice but SynGAP mutants were less responsive, suggesting that NMDAR hypofunction contributes to this selleck kinase inhibitor behavioral abnormality. SynGAP mutants exhibited enhanced startle reactivity and impaired sensory-motor gating. These mice also displayed a complete lack of social memory and a propensity toward social isolation. Finally, SynGAP mutants had deficits in cued fear conditioning and working memory, indicating abnormal function of circuits that control emotion and choice. Our results demonstrate that SynGAP mutant mice have gross neurological deficits similar to other mouse models

of schizophrenia. Because SynGAP interacts with NMDARs, and the signaling activity of this protein is regulated by these channels, our data in dicate that SynGAP lies downstream of NMDARs and is a required intermediate for normal neural circuit function and behavior. AR-13324 solubility dmso Taken together, these data support the idea that schizophrenia may arise from abnormal signaling

pathways that are mediated by NMDA receptors. Neuropsychopharmacology (2009) 34, 1659-1672; doi:10.1038/npp.2008.223; published online 14 January 2009″
“Purpose: We investigated the role of alpha(2)-adrenoceptors and glutamate mechanisms in the urethral continence reflex in response to abdominal pressure increases.

Materials and Methods: Under urethane anesthesia external urethral sphincter electromyogram activity was evaluated in spinal cord transected (T8-T9) female rats during lower abdominal wall compression before and after intravenous application of test drugs. The effects of the N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptor antagonist MK-801 (Sigma (R)) or the alpha(2)-adrenoceptor

agonist medetomidine (Tocris Cookson, Ellisville, Missouri) (each 0.03, 0.3 and 3 mg/kg intravenously) on external urethral sphincter activity were examined. A 0.3 mg/kg intravenous dose 3-oxoacyl-(acyl-carrier-protein) reductase of the alpha(2)-adrenoceptor antagonist idazoxan (Sigma) was then administered before or after the application of 1 mg/kg MK-801 intravenously. In addition, 0.3 mg/kg idazoxan were administered intravenously following the application of 1 mg/kg of the serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor duloxetine (Kemprotec, Middlesbrough, United Kingdom) intravenously.

Results: MK-801 and medetomidine dose dependently decreased external urethral sphincter activity. Idazoxan significantly increased external urethral sphincter activity by 64% but the increase in activity after idazoxan was abolished by MK-801. On the other hand, idazoxan did not reverse the inhibitory effects of MK-801. In addition, idazoxan significantly potentiated the duloxetine effects on external urethral sphincter activity by 120%.

“Glaciers distinct from the Greenland and Antarctic Ice Sh

“Glaciers distinct from the Greenland and Antarctic Ice Sheets are losing large

amounts of water to the world’s oceans. However, estimates of their contribution to sea level rise disagree. We provide a consensus estimate by standardizing existing, and creating new, mass-budget estimates from satellite gravimetry and altimetry and from local glaciological records. In many regions, local measurements are more negative CFTRinh-172 than satellite-based estimates. All regions lost mass during 2003-2009, with the largest losses from Arctic Canada, Alaska, coastal Greenland, the southern Andes, and high-mountain Asia, but there was little loss from glaciers in Antarctica. Over this period, the global mass budget was -259 +/- 28 gigatons per year, equivalent to the combined loss from both ice sheets and accounting for 29 +/- 13% of the observed sea level rise.”
“Sequencing of pediatric gliomas has identified missense mutations Lys27Met (K27M) and Gly34Arg/Val (G34R/V) in genes encoding histone H3.3 (H3F3A) and H3.1 (HIST3H1B). We report that human diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (DIPGs) containing the K27M mutation display significantly lower overall amounts PRT062607 in vivo of H3 with trimethylated lysine 27 (H3K27me3) and that histone H3K27M transgenes

are sufficient to reduce the amounts of H3K27me3 in vitro and in vivo. We find that H3K27M inhibits the enzymatic activity of the Polycomb repressive complex 2 through interaction with the EZH2 subunit. In addition, transgenes containing

lysine-to-methionine substitutions at other known methylated lysines (H3K9 and H3K36) are sufficient to cause specific reduction in methylation through inhibition of SET-domain enzymes. We propose that K-to-M substitutions may represent a mechanism to alter epigenetic states in a variety of pathologies.”
“Invasive species that proliferate after colonizing new habitats have a negative environmental PtdIns(3,4)P2 and economic impact. The reason why some species become successful invaders, whereas others, even closely related species, remain noninvasive is often unclear. The harlequin ladybird Harmonia axyridis, introduced for biological pest control, has become an invader that is outcompeting indigenous ladybird species in many countries. Here, we show that Harmonia carries abundant spores of obligate parasitic microsporidia closely related to Nosema thompsoni. These microsporidia, while not harming the carrier Harmonia, are lethal pathogens for the native ladybird Coccinella septempunctata. We propose that intraguild predation, representing a major selective force among competing ladybird species, causes the infection and ultimate death of native ladybirds when they feed on microsporidia-contaminated Harmonia eggs or larvae.”
“Formins are potent activators of actin filament assembly in the cytoplasm.

No cytotoxic effect of

nutlin-3 was detected in ALL cells

No cytotoxic effect of

nutlin-3 was detected in ALL cells with either p53-mutant or -null phenotype. In wt-p53 ALL cells, there was a significant positive correlation between MDM2 expression levels and sensitivity to nutlin-3. Nutlin-3-induced cell death was mediated by p53-induced activation of proapoptotic proteins and by p53-induced repression of the anti-apoptotic protein Epoxomicin solubility dmso survivin. As p53 function is inhibited by MDM2 in chemoresistant, MDM2-overexpressing ALL cells, potent killing of these cells by nutlin-3 suggests that this agent may be a novel therapeutic for refractory ALL.”
“We investigated the activity of ITF2357, a novel histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) with antitumor activity, on cells carrying the JAK2(V617F) mutation obtained from polycythemia vera (PV) and essential thrombocythemia ( ET) patients as well as the HEL cell line. The clonogenic activity of JAK2(V617F) mutated cells was inhibited by low concentrations of ITF2357

(IC(50) 0.001-0.01 mu M), 100- to 250-fold lower than required to inhibit growth of normal or tumor cells lacking this mutation. Under these conditions, ITF2357 allowed a seven fold increase in the outgrowth of unmutated over mutated colonies. By western blotting we showed that in HEL cells, ITF2357 led to the disappearance of total and phosphorylated JAK2(V617F) BLZ945 cost as well as pSTAT5 and pSTAT3, but it did not affect the wild-type JAK2 or STAT proteins in the control K562 cell line. By real-time PCR, we showed that, upon exposure to ITF2357, JAK2(V617F) mRNA was not modified in granulocytes from PV patients while the expression of the PRV-1 gene, a known target of JAK2, was rapidly downmodulated. Altogether, the data presented suggest that ITF2357 inhibits proliferation of cells bearing the JAK2(V617F) mutation through a specific downmodulation of the JAK2(V617F) protein and inhibition of its downstream signaling.”
“The role of the cerebellum has been increasingly recognized not only in motor control but in sensory, cognitive and emotional learning and regulation. Purkinje cells, being

the sole output from the cerebellar Tryptophan synthase cortex, occupy an integrative position in this network. Plasticity at this level is known to critically involve calcium signaling. In the last few years, electrophysiological study of genetically engineered mice has demonstrated the topical role of several genes encoding calcium-binding proteins (calretinin, calbindin, parvalbumin). Specific inactivation of these genes results in the emergence of a fast network oscillation (ca. 160 Hz) throughout the cerebellar cortex in alert animals, associated with ataxia. This oscillation is produced by synchronization of Purkinje cells along the parallel fiber beam. It behaves as an electrophysiological arrest rhythm, being blocked by sensorimotor stimulation. Pharmacological manipulations showed that the oscillation is blocked by GABA(A) and NMDA antagonists as well as gap junction blockers.

Methods: The study was based on 4424 men and 4380 women (aged 35-

Methods: The study was based on 4424 men and 4380 women (aged 35-74 years) who participated in one of the three Monitoring trends and determinants on cardiovascular diseases Augsburg surveys between 1984 and 1995 and who were free of diabetes at baseline. Sex-specific hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated from Cox proportional hazard

models. Results: A total of 402 cases of incident Type 2 diabetes among men and 271 among women were registered during the mean follow-up period of 10.9 years. Living alone was significantly associated with incident Type 2 diabetes in men but not in women. Mocetinostat mw After adjustment for age, survey, parental history of diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, smoking, physical activity, alcohol intake, and body mass index, the risk of developing diabetes for those who lived alone at baseline compared with those who did not live alone was 1.69 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.19-2.37) in men and 0.85 (95% CI, 0.57-1.24) in women; the p value for the sex interaction was .006 in this model. Inclusion of education and depressed mood in the models in addition to other risk factors had no impact on the observed HRs in women and even increased the risk in men (women: HR, 0.83; selleckchem 95% CI, 0.52-1.32; men: HR, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.33-2.70). Conclusions:

Living alone is an independent predictor of Type 2 diabetes in men but not in women from the general population.”
“We report a novel presenilin 1 gene (PSEN1) mutation (H163P) in a patient with sporadic early-onset Alzheimer’s disease. Clinical, molecular, and neuropathological examinations were performed on an index patient, who presented at the age of 34 years with depression and memory disturbances. At the age of 36 years, she exhibited seizures and myoclonus, cerebellar ataxia, and Parkinsonism. A novel mutation Idoxuridine at codon 163 was found in PSEN1, which was changed from histidine to proline. Severe atrophy was noted in the frontal and temporal lobes of the brain. A histopathological examination of the frontal cortex revealed senile plaques and severe neurofibrillary tangles. PSEN1 codon 163 could

be a mutational hot spot in early-onset Alzheimer’s disease, and may result in a homogeneous phenotype similar to that of other patients with codon-163 mutations: thus, widening the spectrum of PSEN1 codon-163-linked phenotypes. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background Patient survival after severe burn injury is largely determined by burn size. Modern developments in burn care have greatly improved survival and outcomes. However, no large analysis of outcomes in paediatric burn patients with present treatment regimens exists. This study was designed to identify the burn size associated with significant increases in morbidity and mortality in paediatric patients.

Methods We undertook a single-centre prospective observational cohort study using clinical data for paediatric patients with burns of at least 30% of their total body surface area (TBSA).

(C) 2008 Published by Elsevier Inc “
“Systemic osmoregulatio

(C) 2008 Published by Elsevier Inc.”
“Systemic osmoregulation is an integrated physiological process through which water intake and excretion are continuously balanced against salt intake and excretion to maintain the osmolality of the extracellular fluid near an optimal ‘set-point’ value. The behaviors

(that is, thirst and sodium appetite) and renal responses (diuresis and natriuresis) that are modulated to mediate osmoregulatory homeostasis are mainly controlled by the nervous system. Appropriate regulation of these parameters depends in large part on specialized osmosensitive neurons, Repotrectinib order termed osmoreceptors, which convert changes in plasma osmolality into electrical signals that ultimately modulate effector functions to achieve homeostasis. Previous work has shown that mechanosensitive cation channels expressed in osmoreceptor neurons play a key role in the process of osmosensory transduction. Although the molecular identity of these channels remains unknown, a growing body of evidence, reviewed here, indicates that members of the transient receptor potential vanilloid family of ion channels may contribute to osmosensory transduction and to homeostatic responses implicated

in the control of water balance.”
“Prediction of neurotoxic effects is a key feature in the toxicological profile of many compounds and therefore is required by regulatory testing schemes. Nowadays neurotoxicity assessment required by the OECD and EC test guidelines is based solely on in vivo testing, evaluating mainly effects on neurobehavior AR-13324 cell line and neuropathology, which is expensive, time consuming and 3-oxoacyl-(acyl-carrier-protein) reductase unsuitable for screening large number of chemicals. Additionally, such in vivo tests are not always sensitive enough to predict human neurotoxicity and often do not provide information that facilitates regulatory decision-making processes. Incorporation of alternative tests (in vitro testing, computational

modelling, QSARs, grouping, read-across, etc.) in screening strategies would speed up the rate at which compound knowledge and mechanistic data are available and the information obtained could be used in the refinement of future in vivo studies to facilitate predictions of neurotoxicity.

On 1st June 2007, the European Commission legislation concerning registration, evaluation and authorisation of chemicals (REACH) has entered into force. REACH addresses one of the key issues for chemicals in Europe, the lack of publicly available safety data sheets. It outlines a plan to test approximately 30,000 existing substances. These chemicals are currently produced in volumes greater than 1 ton/year and the essential data on the human health and ecotoxicological effects are lacking. It is estimated that approximately 3.9 million test animals (including 2.

The suitability of Lu-177 for biomedical applications was ascerta

The suitability of Lu-177 for biomedical applications was ascertained by labeling 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid D-Phe(1)-Tyr(3)-octreotate(DOTA-TATE) with Lu-177.

Results: This process could provide NCA Lu-177 with >99.99% radionuclidic purity and an overall separation yield of similar to 99% was achieved within 3-4 h. The Hg content in the product was determined to be <1 ppm. Radiolabeling yield of >98% was obtained with DOTA-TATE under the optimized reaction conditions.

Conclusions: An efficient strategy for the separation of NCA Lu-177, suitable for biomedical applications,

has been developed. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“A technetium-99m-labeled

derivative from sulfanilamide, further referred to as Tc-99m-N-SFC, targeting infections BI 2536 in vivo in experimental animals, has been synthesized. The biological features of this radioactive agent have also been studied. The N-sulfanilamide ferrocene carboxamide (N-SFC) was chemically synthesized and then labeled with technetium-99m. It has been confirmed through this work that it is stable and obtained with radiolabelling yield (>87%). Radiochemical selleck chemicals analyses of Tc-99m-N-SFC revealed that the molecule was labeled rapidly (within 2 min) and effectively with little free pertechnetate in the preparations containing purified compound. Furthermore, in vitro investigations were conducted and the label’s stability in serum was observed up to 24 h of testing. Uptake of the tracer with live and heat/killed bacteria was compared in physiological conditions and was about 69% and 61.9% for the Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus strains, respectively. We concluded that synthesis and labeling of Sulfanilamide

derivative with Tc99m- by this method is rapid, efficient and safe. Biodistribution studies demonstrated that our radiolabeled compound is accumulated rapidly and significantly Cyclin-dependent kinase 3 (P<.05) at infection sites. The comparison of the Tc-99m-N-SFC accumulation at sites of S. aureus-infected animals, which is expressed as target-to-non-target ratio, (2.88+/-0.10) with other radiotracers was discussed. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Introduction: High specific radioactivity is preferable in the measurement of neuroreceptor bindings with positron emission tomography (PET) because receptor occupancy by mixed cold ligand hampers the accurate estimation of receptor binding. Recently, we succeeded in synthesizing [C-11]raclopride, a dopamine D, receptor ligand, with ultra-high specific radioactivity, i.e., several thousand GBq/mu mol. In the present study, we compared the [C-11]raclopride bindings to dopamine D-2 receptors between radioligands with ultra-high specific radioactivity and ordinary high specific radioactivity in healthy human subjects.

Taken together, we generated a recombinant HCMV that constitutes

Taken together, we generated a recombinant HCMV that constitutes a useful tool

not only to dissect the in vivo dynamics of pp71 subnuclear localization more precisely but also to explore new features of this viral transactivator.”
“Ethanol exposure during pregnancy is one of the major causes of mental retardation in western countries by inducing fetal-alcohol-like-syndromes. Red wine is known to contain ethanol but also compounds with putative antioxidant properties. It has also been shown that nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are severely affected by ethanol during prenatal and postnatal life. The aim of the current study was to investigate in male CD1 mice brain alterations in NGF and BDNF due to chronic early exposure to ethanol solution (11 vol%) or to red wine at the same alcohol concentration starting from 60 days before pregnancy up to pups weaning. Data revealed no differences Ferrostatin-1 mouse selleck chemical between groups of dams in pregnancy duration, neither in pups delivery, pups mortality

and sex ratio. Data also showed that adult animals exposed to only ethanol had disrupted levels of both NGF and BDNF in the hippocampus and other brain areas. This profile was associated with impaired ChAT immunopositivity in the septum and Nuclei Basalis and with altered cognition and emotional behavior. Quite interestingly mice exposed to red wine had no change in the behavior or in ChAT immunopositivity but a decrease in hippocampal BDNF and a mild NGF decrease in the cortex. Also NGF-induced neuritic outgrowth in PC-12 cells was still present when exposed to

red wine but not when exposed to ethanol solution only. Data suggest differences in ethanol-induced neurotoxicity between red wine and ethanol solution only. (C) 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), a member of the Picornaviridae, is a pathogen of cloven-hoofed animals and causes a disease of major economic importance. Picornavirus-infected cells show changes in cell morphology and rearrangement of cytoplasmic membranes, which are a consequence of virus replication. We show here, by confocal immunofluorescence and electron microscopy, that the changes in morphology of FMDV-infected acetylcholine cells involve changes in the distribution of microtubule and intermediate filament components during infection. Despite the continued presence of centrosomes in infected cells, there is a loss of tethering of microtubules to the microtubule organizing center (MTOC) region. Loss of labelingfor gamma-tubulin, but not pericentrin, from the MTOC suggests a targeting of gamma-tubulin (or associated proteins) rather than a total breakdown in MTOC structure. The identity of the FMDV protein(s) responsible was determined by the expression of individual viral nonstructural proteins and their precursors in uninfected cells.

Attention selection may be guided by low-level stimulus propertie

Attention selection may be guided by low-level stimulus properties, by the emotional value of the stimulus, or more voluntarily by the goals and plans of the observer. Whether these three systems operate independently during attention selection or not remains a debated question. We selleck report results from two studies investigating the extent to which these different attention mechanisms may interact with one another. Using a standard dot probe paradigm wherein effects of exogenous, emotional,

and endogenous attention were orthogonally manipulated, we found attentional facilitation effects for each component, indicated by faster decision times for validly, as opposed to invalidly cued targets. Moreover, results confirmed that these three attentional effects added up in a linear fashion. Complementing ERP results allowed us to disentangle the respective contributions of the two reflexive, bottom-up attention processes (exogenous vs. emotional) by showing non-overlapping

temporal loci for attentional effects related either to low-level physical properties or the emotional content of the stimulus. These findings suggest that multiple separate attention mechanisms can operate simultaneously to yield a rapid and efficient visual processing of various classes of potentially relevant stimuli. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Objective: This study compared outcomes between thoracic endovascular aortic repair and conventional open surgical and medical therapies for acute complicated BYL719 molecular weight type B aortic dissection.

Methods: From 2002 to 2010, a total of 170 patients with type B aortic dissections were HSP90 retrospectively identified from the University of Pennsylvania aortic database. Of these 170 patients, 147 had acute type B aortic dissections (uncomplicated 70, complicated 77). For patients with acute complicated type B aortic dissections, management included thoracic endovascular aortic repair (group

A) or conventional open surgical and medical therapies (group B).

Results: In the 77 patients with acute complicated type B aortic dissections, thoracic endovascular aortic repair (group A) was performed in 45 patients (59%). In group B, 20 patients (26%) underwent open surgical repair and 12 (15%) had their conditions managed with medical therapy. Thoracic endovascular aortic repair was associated with lower in-hospital or 30-day mortality (n = 2, 4%) than conventional therapy (open surgical repair n = 8, 40%, medical therapy, n 4, 33%, P = .006). Patients in group A (thoracic endovascular aortic repair) continued to show significantly improved survival at 1, 3, and 5 years (group A: 82%, 79%, and 79% vs group B: 58%, 52%, and 44%, P = .008).

Conclusions: Thoracic endovascular aortic repair for acute complicated type B dissection is associated with superior early outcome and improved midterm survival relative to conventional therapy.