Tablets containing 30% metoprolol and 70% ethylcellulose (EC 4 mPa s) showed an incomplete drug release within 24 h (<50%). Increasing production temperatures resulted in a lower drug release rate. Substituting part of the EC fraction by HPMC (HPMC/EC-ratio: 20/50 and 35/35) resulted in faster and constant drug release rates. Formulations containing 50% HPMC had a complete and first-order drug release
profile with drug release controlled via the combination of diffusion and swelling/erosion. Faster drug release rates were observed for higher viscosity grades of EC (Mw > 20 mPa s) and HPMC (4000 and 10,000 mPa s). Tablet porosity was low Selleckchem GSK2399872A (<4%). Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray powder diffraction studies (X-RD) showed that solid dispersions were formed during processing. Using thermogravimetrical analysis (TGA) and gel-permeation chromatography BAY 73-4506 mw no degradation of drug and matrix polymer was observed. The surface morphology was investigated with the aid of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showing an influence of the process temperature. Raman spectroscopy demonstrated that the drug is distributed in the entire
matrix, however, some drug clusters were identified. (c) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Spontaneous deamination of cytosine to uracil in DNA is a ubiquitous source of C -> T mutations, but occurs with a half life of similar to 50 000 years. In contrast, cytosine within sunlight induced cyclobutane dipyrimidine dimers (CPD’s), deaminate
within hours to days. Methylation of C increases the frequency of CPD formation at PyCG sites which correlate with C -> T mutation hotspots in skin cancers. MeCP2 binds to (m)CG sites and acts as a transcriptional regulator and chromatin modifier affecting thousands of genes, but its effect on CPD formation and deamination is unknown. We report that the methyl CpG binding domain of MeCP2 (MBD) greatly enhances C=(m)C CPD formation at a TC(m)CG site in duplex DNA and binds with equal or better affinity to the CPD-containing duplex compared Pexidartinib mouse with the undamaged duplex. In comparison, MBD does not enhance T=(m)C CPD formation at a TT(m)CG site, but instead increases CPD formation at the adjacent TT site. MBD was also found to completely suppress deamination of the T=(m)CG CPD, suggesting that MeCP2 may have the capability to both suppress UV mutagenesis at Py(m)CpG sites as well as enhance it.”
“Background: Excessive airway mucus secretion is a remarkable trait of asthma. Mucus overproduction mainly resulted from an increase in goblet cell numbers, which causes considerable damage to health. However, effective therapeutic treatments are still lacking for mucus hypersecretion. Human calcium-activated chloride channel 1 (hCLCA1) has been identified to be predominantly responsible for mucus hypersecretion.
[Conclusion] The result of this study indicate that controlled hypertension in elderly adults is not a cause of worse balance performance than controls on
stable or unstable surfaces with the eyes open or closed.”
“It was suggested that the brain microenvironment plays a role in glioma progression. Here we investigate the mechanism by which astrocytes which are abundant in glioma tumors, promote cancer cell invasion. In this study, we evaluated the effects of astrocytes on glioma biology both in vitro and in vivo and determined the downstream paracrine effect of glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) on tumor invasion. Astrocytes-conditioned media (ACM) significantly increased human and murine glioma cells migration compared www.selleckchem.com/products/epz-6438.html to controls. This effect was inhibited when the activity of GDNF on glioma cells was blocked by RET-Fc chimera or anti-GDNF Ab and by small interfering RNA directed against GDNF expression by astrocytes. Glioma cells incubated with ACM led to time dependent phosphorylation of the GDNF receptor, 3-deazaneplanocin A RET and downstream activation of AKT. Tumor migration and GDNF-RET-AKT activation was inhibited by the RET small-molecule inhibitor pyrazolopyrimidine-1 (PP1) and by the AKT inhibitor LY294002. Finally, blocking of RET by PP1 or knockout of the
RET coreceptor GFR1 in glioma cells reduced the size of brain tumors in immunocompetent mice. We suggest a mechanism by which astrocytes attracted to the glioma tumors facilitate brain invasion by secretion of GDNF and activation of RET/GFR1 receptors expressed by the cancer cells. What’s new? Glioblastomas arise in astrocytes, the cells that support the brain, but reproduce quickly and spread to the brain itself. How do astrocytes promote this invasiveness? These authors tested the role of the signaling molecule GDNF in spurring cancer growth. They found
that in an astrocyte-rich environment, cultured glioma cells migrated more than usual – but this mobility boost vanished when they prevented GDNF from binding to its receptor, RET. In mice with gliomas, blocking RET slowed the growth of the tumors considerably. This demonstrates for the first time that astrocytes promote tumor invasion via GDNF and RET, selleck products and could suggest new treatment avenues.”
“Background\n\nOxycodone is a semi-synthetic opioid with a mu-receptor agonist-mediated effect in several pain conditions, including post-operative pain. Oxycodone is metabolized to its active metabolite oxymorphone by O-demethylation via the polymorphic CYP2D6. The aim of this study was to investigate whether CYP2D6 poor metabolizers (PMs) yield the same analgesia post-operatively from intravenous oxycodone as extensive metabolizers (EMs).\n\nMethods\n\nTwo hundred and seventy patients undergoing primarily thyroid surgery or hysterectomy were included and followed for 24 h post-operatively. The CYP2D6 genotype was blinded until study procedures had been completed for all patients.
Optimum conditions for the reaction were established and effect of each variable was investigated. The
base catalyzed transesterification favored a temperature of 55 degrees C with methanol/oil molar ratio of 8/1 and potassium hydroxide at 2% (ww(-1)) (oil basis). The conversion of methyl esters exceeded 98% after 5 h and the product quality was verified to match that https://www.selleckchem.com/products/dorsomorphin-2hcl.html for biodiesel with international standards. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Carotenoids and flavonoids are the main tomatoes antioxidants, having an important role for human health. This study investigates the effects of different water regime and of the industrial processing on the concentration of these compounds in tomato fruits and in tomato products. Two biotypes of Corbarini small
tomatoes were cultivated in the Sarno valley (Salerno. Italy) using three different water regimes. A biochemical characterization of the fresh and of the corresponding canned products was performed. Results show that water regime influenced selleck inhibitor the antioxidant profile of tomato fruits, with marked differences between the two biotypes. Data obtained highlight that water regime markedly influenced the productivity and the quality of the tomatoes. Results also demonstrated that industrial process increased carotenoids content without causing a significant flavonoids degradation. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Propionibacteria derived from dairy products are relevant starter cultures for the production of Swiss and Emmental-type cheeses, and the monitoring of which is mandatory for proper quality control. This study aimed to evaluate an alternative procedure to enumerate propionibacteria, in order to develop a reliable and practical methodology to be employed by dairy industries. 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium
chloride (TTC) inhibitory activity was tested against five reference strains (CIRM 09, 38, 39, 40 and 116); TTC at 0.0025% (w/v) was not inhibitory, with the exception of one strain (CIRM 116). Subsequently, the four TTC-resistant strains, three commercial starter cultures (PS-1, PB-I, and CHOO) and twelve Emmental-type cheese samples were subjected to propionibacteria enumeration using Lithium Glycerol (LG) agar, and Petrifilm (TM) Aerobic Count (AC) learn more plates added to LG broth (anaerobic incubation at 30 degrees C for 7 d). Petrifilm (TM) AC added to LG broth presented high counts than LG agar (P<0.05) for only two reference strains (CIRM 39, and 40) and for all commercial starter cultures. Cheese sample counts obtained by both procedures did not show significant differences (P<0.05). Significant correlation indexes were observed between the counts recorded by both methods (P<0.05). These results demonstrate the reliability of Petrifilm (TM) AC plates added to LG broth in enumerating select Propionibacterium spp.
Bread loaf volume was significantly reduced above 5 % THPF addition. THPF increased water absorption causing an increase in bread weights by up to 6 %. Overall, loaf quality deteriorated at 10 and 15 % THPF levels while bread with 5 % THPF was not significantly different from the control. These results support the addition of 5 % THPF as a means to enhance lysine content of white pan bread.”
“This special issue of Psychophysiology is focused on an imaginative
and labor-intensive examination of the genomic substrates of heritable neurophysiological Dibutyryl-cAMP cost endophenotypes in the Minnesota Center for Twin and Family Research (MCTFR) cohorts. The authors artfully combine the power of family-based behavioral data with the atheoretical genome-wide association study (GWAS) platform to enrich the examination of the genomic substrates of endophenotypes. Neurophysiological endophenotype deficits are found in psychiatric patients and are heritable in families of these psychiatric patients, allowing the investigators to combine www.selleckchem.com/products/defactinib.html the explanatory power of endophenotypes, with their known neural and functional substrates, with the otherwise agnostic identification of genes in the GWAS platform. This amplifies the power of the MCTFR endophenotype database. These well-considered studies add
significantly to our understanding of normal human neurobiology and stimulate the use
of these endophenotypes to expand our knowledge of the role of these measures and their genomic substrates in normal and psychopathology research.”
“Introduction and Aims: Differentiation of ischemic from non-ischemic etiology in heart failure (HF) patients has both therapeutic and prognostic implications. One possible approach to this differentiation click here is direct visualization of the coronary tree. Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) has emerged as an alternative to invasive coronary angiography (ICA), but its performance and additional clinical value are still not well validated in patients with left ventricular (LV) dysfunction. We aimed to assess the value of coronary MDCT angiography (CTA) in the exclusion of ischemic etiology in HF patients and to determine whether the Agatston calcium score could be used as a gatekeeper for CIA in this context. Methods: We retrospectively selected symptomatic HF patients with LV ejection fraction (LVEF) smaller than 50%, as assessed by echocardiography, referred for CIA between April 2006 and May 2013. Patients with previously known CAD or valvular disease were excluded. The performance of MDCT in the detection of coronary artery disease (CAD) and/or exclusion of an ischemic etiology for HF was studied.
Mesenteric arteries from GK rats treated with losartan exhibited (vs. untreated GK) 1) reduced nucleotide-induced contractions, 2) suppressed UTP-induced release of PGE(2) and PG(F2 alpha), 3) suppressed UTP-stimulated cPLA(2) phosphorylation, 4) normalized expressions of COX-2 and P2Y4 receptors, and 5) reduced superoxide BMS-777607 datasheet generation. Our data suggest that the diabetes-related enhancement of ATP-mediated vasoconstriction was due to P2Y receptor-mediated activation of the cPLA(2)/COX pathway
and, moreover, that losartan normalizes such contractions by a suppressing action within this pathway.”
“Mirtazapine, a noradrenergic and specific serotonergic antidepressant (NaSSA), blocks the alpha(2)-adrenergic autoreceptors
and heteroreceptors, which are responsible for controlling noradrenaline and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) release. Though preclinical and clinical studies have shown that mirtazapine exerts an anxiolytic action, its precise brain target sites remain unclear. In the present study, we investigated the brain area(s) in which mirtazapine exerts its anxiolytic-like effects on the expression of contextual conditioned freezing in rats. Mirtazapine (3 mu g/site) was directly injected into three brain structures, the median raphe nucleus (MRN), hippocampus and amygdala. Freezing behavior tests were carried out 10 min after injections. Our results showed that the intra-MRN injection of Panobinostat in vitro mirtazapine reduced
freezing significantly, whereas injections CYT387 into the hippocampus or the amygdala did not. In addition, the intra-MRN injection of mirtazapine did not affect locomotor activity. These results suggest that the anxiolytic-like effect of mirtazapine might be mediated by its action on the MRN. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Purpose: To examine the safety of outpatient clinic simultaneous intravenous fundus fluorescein angiography (IVFA) and indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) in patients with any/all drug allergy history.\n\nMethods: In a single-center retrospective study conducted from February 2007 to March 2011, 390 consecutive outpatients with drug allergy history and 3426 patients without allergy history underwent simultaneous intravenous IVFA and ICGA. The detailed drug allergy history, the symptoms and time of the adverse reaction during simultaneous IVFA and ICGA were recorded in all the patients.\n\nResults: Of the 390 patients with drug allergy history who received IVFA and ICGA, 28 patients (7.2%) had an adverse reaction. In contrast, 145 of the 3426 patients (4.2%) without allergy history had an adverse reaction during simultaneous IVFA and ICGA. Statistical significance in the incidence (P = 0.008) and severity (P = 0.
Results show that the fatigue safety factor jumped to 2.5-3.0 times that of the standard stent with constant strut width. This is astonishing considering that the stent profile and scaffolding were not compromised. The findings of this paper provide an excellent approach to the optimization
of future stent design to greatly improve stent fatigue performance.”
“With Epigenetics inhibitor the projected growth in photovoltaics the demand of glass for the solar industry will far exceed the current supply, and thousands of new float-glass plants will have to be built to meet its needs over the next 20 years. Such expansion will provide an opportunity for the solar industry to obtain products better suited to their needs, such as low-iron glass and borosilicate glass at the lowest possible price. While there are no significant technological hurdles that would
prevent the flat glass industry from meeting the solar industry’s projected needs, to do so will require advance planning and substantial investments. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate whether performing different fertilization technologies (intracytoplasmic sperm injection [ICSI] and in vitro fertilization [IVF]) may affect the result of fertilization in the normal fertilization cycles. Study AZD9291 design: The authors performed a retrospective AC220 ic50 analysis of 164 cycles using sibling oocytes in combined IVF/ICSI with achieved a normal fertilization ( bigger than = 25%) both conventional IVF and ICSI in this infertility centre.
Results: It was found that there were no differences in 2PN rate (70.25% vs 70.60%), but higher cleavage rate in ICSI than IVF insemination (98.99% vs 96.81%), higher arrested embryos rate in IVF than ICSI in 2PN group (20.00% vs 13.95%), and higher abnormal fertilization 1PN (3.87% vs 1.92%) and 3PN (3.63 vs 0.854%) in IVF than ICSI. Conclusion: there were some differences fertilization outcomes between ICSI and IVF, which may be related to different procedures between two techniques.”
“Ten penicillinase-producing Neisseria gonorrhoeae (PPNG) strains isolated from 2000 to 2008 were characterized by multilocus sequence typing, multiantigen sequence typing, and plasmid typing. Sequence analysis showed that 8 strains contained a TEM-1 beta-lactamase gene. However, two other genetically distinct PPNG strains, isolated in 2004 and 2008, each contained a TEM-135 beta-lactamase on different plasmids, a Toronto/Rio type R plasmid and an Asia type R plasmid, suggesting independent origins of these PPNG strains.”
“Microglia develop an inflammatory phenotype during normal aging. The mechanism by which this occurs is not well understood, but might be related to impairments in several key immunoregulatory systems.
Copyright (C) 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.”
“Background. We examined the extent to which trait anger and psychopathic traits predicted post-discharge self-directed violence (SDV) and other-directed violence (ODV) among psychiatric patients.\n\nMethod. Participants were 851 psychiatric patients sampled from in-patient hospitals for the MacArthur Violence Risk Assessment Study (MVRAS). Participants were administered baseline interviews at the hospital and five follow-up interviews in the community at approximately 10-week intervals. Psychopathy and trait anger were assessed with the Psychopathy Checklist : Screening Version (PS C:SV) and the Novaco Anger Scale
(NAS) respectively. SDV was assessed during follow-ups with participants and ODV was assessed during interviews with participants and collateral informants. Psychopathy facets and anger were entered in logistic regression models PLX3397 in vitro to predict membership in one of four groups indicating violence status during follow-up : (1) SDV, (2) ODV, (3) learn more co-occurring violence (COV), and (4) no violence.\n\nResults. Anger predicted membership in all three violence groups relative to a non-violent reference group. In unadjusted models, all psychopathy facets
predicted ODV and COV during follow-up. In adjusted models, interpersonal and antisocial traits of psychopathy predicted membership in the ODV group whereas only antisocial traits predicted membership in the COV group.\n\nConclusions. Although our results provide evidence for a broad role for trait anger in predicting SDV and ODV among discharged psychiatric patients, they suggest that unique patterns of psychopathic traits differentially predict violence toward self and others. The measurement of anger and facets of psychopathy during discharge planning for psychiatric patients may provide clinicians with information regarding risk for specific types of violence. Received 14 March 2011; Revised 11 June 2011; Accepted 20 June 2011; First published
online 18 July 2011″
“Background: Esophageal squamous incidence in many developed countries has increased dramatically over last decades, while the underlying mechanism of the biogenesis of ES was still unknown.\n\nMethods: Here, we investigate 1001 see more subjects with esophageal cancer recruited from the affiliated hospital of Shanghai Jiao Tong University from Jan. 1, 2001 to Feb. 2, 2004. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of alcohol dehydrogenase-1B (ADH1B) was performed, and the recombinant plasimd containing ADH1B was constructed. Then, the ADH1B was purified and the enzymatic activity was assayed according to the methodology of Quayle. Furthermore, the effect of ADH1B on proliferation of human esophageal squamous cell lines was determined and the underlying mechanism of ADH1B was investigated.\n\nResults: Logistic regression analyses revealed that subjects carrying the GG variant homozygote had a significant 2.
Anat Rec, 294: 1352-1359, 2011. (C) 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.”
“Vaccine design approaches that target dendritic cells (DC) aim at achieving high levels of transgene expression. Careful selection
of the promoter element driving the foreign gene is therefore important. We have constructed adenovirus vectors carrying the gene for enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) driven by three different promoters, CMV, CMV5 and ubiquitin C (UbC) promoter, and analysed their activity in different Veliparib purchase populations of human DC, namely blood plasmacytoid (pDC) and myeloid DC (mDC), monocyte-derived DC (moDC), Langerhans (LC) and dermal type DC (dDC). Although the CMV5 promoter was more active than the other two promoters in the HeLa SB273005 and 911 HER cell lines, in human DC the highest level of transgene expression was seen with the CMV promoter. There was very low-level eGFP expression in all cell types transduced with the UbC promoter. Highest eGFP expression levels were observed in moDC, cultured
mDC and LC and the lowest levels in pDC. Expression of eGFP was augmented in all DC populations upon stimulation with CD40 ligand (CD40L). These findings demonstrate that the CMV promoter is the most effective of the three promoters tested in a range of different human DC populations. (C) 2007 Published by Elsevier B.V.”
“Background: Humeral shaft fractures account for 1 to 3% of all fractures in adults and for 20% of all humeral fractures. Non-operative treatment is still the standard treatment of isolated humeral shaft fractures, although this method can present unsatisfactory results. Surgical treatment is reserved for specific conditions. Modern concepts of internal fixation of long bone shaft fractures advocate relative stabilisation techniques with no harm to fracture zone. Recently described, minimally invasive bridge plate osteosynthesis has been shown to be a secure technique with good results for treating humeral shaft fractures. There is no good quality evidence advocating which method is more effective. This randomised controlled trial will be performed
to investigate the effectiveness of surgical treatment of humeral IPI-549 cost shaft fractures with bridge plating in comparison with conservative treatment with functional brace.\n\nMethods/Design: This randomised clinical trial aims to include 110 patients with humeral shaft fractures who will be allocated after randomisation to one of the two groups: bridge plate or functional brace. Surgical treatment will be performed according to technique described by Livani and Belangero using a narrow DCP plate. Non-operative management will consist of a functional brace for 6 weeks or until fracture consolidation. All patients will be included in the same rehabilitation program and will be followed up for 1 year after intervention. The primary outcome will be the DASH score after 6 months of intervention.
\n\nMethods: lmmunohistochemistry and Western blot were used to study MUC1 expression pattern Nirogacestat Neuronal Signaling inhibitor and localization in mitochondria. Coimmunoprecipitation was used to study MUC1 interaction with HSP70. MUC1 expression was correlated with other causative features including erbB2 expression.\n\nResults: MUC1 was expressed in 75.8% (147/194). MUC1 overexpression was detected in 50.0% (19/38 cases) dysplasia and 58.2% (32/55 cases) adenocarcinoma tissues. MUC1-CT-HSP70 interaction was seen in 71.66% (43/60 cases) and MUC1 localized to mitochondria in 33.33% (5/15) dysplasia samples and in 47.05% (8/17) adenocarcinoma samples. MUC1 expression showed significant association
with smoking (chi(2)=5.945; p<0.015), alcohol consumption (chi(2)=4.055; p<0.044) and erbB2 positivity (chi(2)=10.75; p<0.001). MUC1 expression did not show appreciable association with age (chi(2)=0.15; p<0.698), sex (chi(2)=0.22; p<0.640) or Helicobacter pylori infection (chi(2)=3.06; p<0.080).\n\nConclusions: Significant correlation was found between MUC1 expression and smoking, alcohol and erbB2 expression. MUC1 showed aberrant expression in dysplasia and adenocarcinoma stages. MUC1 cytosolic tail was bound by HSP70 in all the stages but MUC1-CT was found to localize in mitochondria
only in dysplasia and adenocarcinoma. MUC1-CT localization to mitochondria in dysplasia and adenocarcinoma might aid in the attenuation of epithelial stress response induced loss of polarity. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Dendritic cells (DCs) function Small molecule library cell assay by stimulating naive antigen-specific CD4 T cells to proliferate and selleck chemicals llc secrete a variety of immunomodulatory factors. The ability to activate naive T cells comes from the capacity of DCs to internalize, degrade, and express peptide fragments of antigenic proteins on their surface bound to MHC class II molecules (MHC-II). Although DCs express tens of thousands of distinct MHC-II, very small amounts of specific peptide-MHC-II complexes are required to interact with and activate T cells. We now show that stimulatory MHC-II
I-Ak-HEL(46-61) complexes that move from intracellular antigen-processing compartments to the plasma membrane are not randomly distributed on the DC surface. Confocal immunofluorescence microscopy and quantitative immunoelectron microscopy reveal that the majority of newly generated MHC-II I-Ak-HEL(46-61) complexes are expressed in sub-100-nm microclusters on the DC membrane. These microclusters are stabilized in cholesterol-containing microdomains, and cholesterol depletion inhibits the stability of these clusters as well as the ability of the DCs to function as antigen-presenting cells. These results demonstrate that specific cohorts of peptide-MHC-II complexes expressed on the DC surface are present in cholesterol-dependent microclusters and that cluster integrity is important for antigen-specific naive CD4 T cell activation by DCs.
Furthermore, we found that intrahepatic IL-17 was mainly localized in the fibrosis region. Our data reveal important roles of IL-17 and IL-17-producing cells in the progression of HBV related chronic liver diseases, especially in the formation of liver fibrosis.”
“Aims: In a previous study we found that A-935142 enhanced hERG current in a concentration-dependent manner by
facilitating activation, www.selleckchem.com/products/gant61.html reducing inactivation, and slowing deactivation (Su et al., 2009). A-935142 also shortened action potential duration (APD(90)) in canine Purkinje fibers and guinea pig atrial tissue. This study focused on the combined effects of the prototypical hERG enhancer, A-935142 and two hERG current blockers (sotalol and terfenadine).\n\nMain methods: The whole-cell voltage clamp method with HEK 293 cells heterologously expressing the hERG channel (Kv 11.1) was used.\n\nKey findings: A-935142 did not compete with H-3-dofetilide binding, suggesting that A-935142 does not overlap the binding site of typical hERG blockers. In whole-cell voltage clamp studies we found: check details 1) 60 mu M A-935142 enhanced hERG current in the
presence of 150 mu M sotalol (57.5 +/- 5.8%) to a similar extent as seen with A-935142 alone (55.6 +/- 5.1%); 2) 150 mu M sotalol blocked hERG current in the presence of 60 mu M A-935142 (43.5 +/- 1.5%) to a similar extent as that seen with sotalol alone (42.0 +/- 3.2%) and 3) during co-application, hERG current click here enhancement was followed by current blockade. Similar results were obtained with 60 nM terfenadine combined with A-935142.\n\nSignificance: These results suggest that the hERG enhancer, A-935142 does not compete with these two known hERG blockers at their binding site within the hERG channel. This selective hERG current enhancement may be useful as a treatment for inherited
or acquired LQTS (Casis et al., 2006). (c) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Background: Globally, BCG vaccination varies in efficacy and has some non-specific protective effects. Previous studies comparing BCG strains have been small-scale, with few or no immunological outcomes and have compared TB-specific responses only. We aimed to evaluate both specific and non-specific immune responses to different strains of BCG within a large infant cohort and to evaluate further the relationship between BCG strain, scarring and cytokine responses.\n\nMethods: Infants from the Entebbe Mother and Baby Study (ISRCTN32849447) who received BCG-Russia, BCG-Bulgaria or BCG-Denmark at birth, were analysed by BCG strain group. At one year, interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), interleukin (IL)-5, IL-13 and IL-10 responses to mycobacteria-specific antigens (crude culture filtrate proteins and antigen 85) and non-mycobacterial stimuli (tetanus toxoid and phytohaemagglutinin) were measured using ELISA.