The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of queti

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of quetiapine on object recognition memory and on oxidative stress that could be involved in the AD pathogenesis in an amyloid precursor protein/presenilin-1 double transgenic mouse model of AD. Nontransgenic and transgenic mice were treated with quetiapine (0 or 5 mg/kg/day) in drinking water from the age of 2 months. After 10 months of continuous quetiapine administration, object recognition memory impairment

and the increased hippocampal protein expression of nitrotyrosine, a protein marker of oxidative stress, were attenuated in the AD mice. These results suggest that quetiapine can attenuate object recognition memory impairment and brain oxidative stress in an amyloid

precursor protein/presenilin-1 transgenic mouse model of AD and indicate that the antioxidative effect of early click here quetiapine intervention may be associated with the beneficial effect of quetiapine on memory in AD. (C) 2014 Wolters Kluwer Health vertical bar Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.”
“Early mobilization of critically ill patients with the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) has emerged as a therapeutic strategy that improves patient outcomes, such as the duration of mechanical ventilation and muscle strength. Despite the apparent efficacy of early mobility programs, their use in clinical practice is limited outside of specialized KU-57788 solubility dmso centers and clinical trials. To evaluate the mechanisms underlying mobility

therapy, we exercised acute lung injury (ALI) Smad inhibitor mice for 2 days after the instillation of lipopolysaccharides into their lungs. We found that a short duration of moderate intensity exercise in ALI mice attenuated muscle ring finger 1 (MuRF1)-mediated atrophy of the limb and respiratory muscles and improved limb muscle force generation. Exercise also limited the influx of neutrophils into the alveolar space through modulation of a coordinated systemic neutrophil chemokine response. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) concentrations were systemically reduced by exercise in ALI mice, and in vivo blockade of the G-CSF receptor recapitulated the lung exercise phenotype in ALI mice. Additionally, plasma G-CSF concentrations in humans with acute respiratory failure (ARF) undergoing early mobility therapy showed greater decrements over time compared to control ARF patients. Together, these data provide a mechanism whereby early mobility therapy attenuates muscle wasting and limits ongoing alveolar neutrophilia through modulation of systemic neutrophil chemokines in lung-injured mice and humans.”
“BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Incidental durotomy occurs in 1% to 17% of lumbar spine surgery. This is treated with watertight suture repair, often combined with a sealant.

Our in vitro competition experiment indicates that RapA binds to

Our in vitro competition experiment indicates that RapA binds to core RNAP only

but is readily displaceable by sigma(70). RapA is likely another general transcription factor, the structure of which provides a framework for future studies of this bacterial Swi2/Snf2 protein and its important roles in RNAP recycling during transcription.”
“Background: Reduced bone mineral density and increased fracture risk have been reported in children with cancer. In this study, we Small Molecule Compound Library aimed to determine the growth and bone mineral density (BMD) of the children off chemotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and the probable risk factors.\n\nProcedure: The age, anthropometric measurements, lumbar spine BMDs were recorded in 70 children. The risk factors on BMD; daily calcium intake, the time interval from the completion of the chemotherapy, cranial radiotherapy, cumulative steroid dose, decrease in physical activity were investigated. Serum calcium, phosphate, alkaline phosphates, magnesium, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and 25 (OH) vitamin D levels were determined.\n\nResults: The mean height percentile at the time of diagnosis was decreased from the value of 53 to a value of 47 at the beginning of the

study (P = 0.071). Of them; 44% had osteoporosis, 41% had osteopenia, and the rest had normal BMD. BMD z-scores were decreased during the first 2 years from the completion of the treatment. There was a positive correlation between BMD z-scores and daily calcium intake (CC = 0.366, P = 0.0015). A negative correlation was determined between the time spent on TV and computers and BMD z-scores (CC = -0.464, P = 0.0019). Serum IGF-1 and 25 (OH) vitamin D levels of patients were significantly lower than controls (P = 0.033).\n\nConclusions: Our data revealed that 85% of the survivors had bone mineralization defect. BMDs and z scores were decreased during the first 2 years from the completion of the treatment and then gradually began to increase. The most important risk factor for decreased BMD was low daily calcium intake. Therefore, patients

and their families should be encouraged to take GSK2245840 in vivo sufficient amount of calcium. Prophylactic vitamin D may also be supplemented.”
“The aim of the present study was to compare the subjectively reported and objectively assessed activity-related characteristics of patients with Chronic Low Back Pain (CLBP) who were classified according to their scores on the Patterns of Activity Measure-Pain (POAM-P) into avoiders, persisters, mixed performers (i.e. high scores on both avoidance and persistence behaviour) or functional performers (i.e. low scores on avoidance and persistence behaviour).\n\nPatients carried an electronic diary during 14 days to assess the self-reported activity and pain intensity levels in daily life. An accelerometer was used to objectively assess their activity level during the same time period.\n\nResults were available for 79 patients.

2 mm Hg for aliskiren 150 and 300 mg, respectively (P < 0 001)

2 mm Hg for aliskiren 150 and 300 mg, respectively (P < 0.001), and 11.0 and 13.8 mm Hg for amlodipine 5 and 10 mg, respectively (P < 0.05). Aliskiren/amlodipine combinations provided reductions in mean sitting systolic BP 20.6-23.9 mm Hg, AR-13324 molecular weight compared with decreases of 10.7

and 15.4 mm Hg for aliskiren 150 and 300 mg, respectively (P < 0.001), and 15.8 and 21.0 mm Hg for amlodipine 5 (P <= 0.001) and 10 mg (P = NS), respectively. Aliskiren/amlodipine combination therapy provides greater BP lowering than either agent alone, hence offering an effective treatment option for patients with hypertension. Journal of Human Hypertension (2013) 27, 321-327; doi:10.1038/jhh.2012.42; published online 18 October 2012″
“A high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray

tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MSn) based chemical profiling method was developed selleck chemical to evaluate repetitious steaming-induced chemical transformations in black ginseng (BG and Korean white ginseng subjected to nine cycles of steam treatment). Under the optimized HPLC and ESI-MS/MSn conditions, more than 13 and 17 peaks were separated and detected in white ginseng (WG) and BG within 85 min, respectively. The components were identified by comparing the mass spectrum and/or matching the empirical molecular formula with that of known published compounds. In total, 17 major ginsenosides were identified in BG, 16 of which were determined to be newly Combretastatin A4 order generated during the BG preparatory process. The mechanisms involved were further deduced to be

hydrolysis, dehydration, isomerization, and decarboxylation reactions of the original ginsenosides in WG by analyzing nine mimic cycles of steaming extracts of seven pure reference ginsenosides. A significant difference in chemical profiles between BGs developed from two batches of WG suggested that storage duration significantly influenced the quality consistency of not only the crude drug but also the BG derived from WG.”
“We study the Multi-Depot Multiple Traveling Salesman Problem (MDMTSP), which is a variant of the very well-known Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP). In the MDMTSP an unlimited number of salesmen have to visit a set of customers using routes that can be based on a subset of available depots. The MDMTSP is an NP-hard problem because it includes the TSP as a particular case when the distances satisfy the triangular inequality. The problem has some real applications and is closely related to other important multi-depot routing problems, like the Multi-Depot Vehicle Routing Problem and the Location Routing Problem. We present an integer linear formulation for the MDMTSP and strengthen it with the introduction of several families of valid inequalities. Certain facet-inducing inequalities for the TSP polyhedron can be used to derive facet-inducing inequalities for the MDMTSP. Furthermore, several inequalities that are specific to the MDMTSP are also studied and proved to be facet-inducing.

Citric acid is reported to function as a pH adjuster, chelating a

Citric acid is reported to function as a pH adjuster, chelating agent, or fragrance ingredient. Some of the salts are also reported to function as chelating agents, and

a number of the citrates are reported to function as skin-conditioning agents but other functions are also reported. The Panel reviewed available animal and clinical data, but because citric acid, calcium citrate, ferric citrate, manganese citrate, potassium citrate, sodium citrate, diammonium citrate, isopropyl citrate, stearyl citrate, and triethyl citrate are generally recognized as safe direct food additives, dermal exposure was the focus for these ingredients in this cosmetic ingredient safety assessment.”
“The synthesis see more of hollow Ag nanoshells (NSs) with tunable plasmon bands in the visible spectrum and their oxidative-assembly into high-surface-area, mesoporous, transparent, and opaque Ag gel frameworks is reported. Ruboxistaurin datasheet Thiolate-coated Ag NSs with varying size and

shell thickness were prepared by fast chemical reduction of preformed Ag2O nanoparticles (NPs). These NSs were assembled into monolithic Ag hydrogels via oxidative removal of the surface thiolates, followed by CO2 supercritical drying to produce metallic Ag aerogels. The gelation kinetics have been controlled by tuning the oxidant/thiolate molar ratio (X) that governs the rate of NP condensation, which in turn 5-Fluoracil purchase determines the morphology, optical transparency, opacity, surface area, and porosity of the resultant gel frameworks. The monolithic Ag hydrogels prepared using high concentration of oxidant (X bigger than 7.7) leads to oxidative etching of precursor colloids into significantly smaller NPs (3.2-7.6 nm), which appeared to eliminate the visible light scattering yielding transparent gel materials. In contrast, the opaque Ag aerogels composed entirely of hollow NSs exhibit enormously high surface areas (45-160 m(2)/g), interconnected meso-to-macro-pore network that

can be tuned by varying the inner cavity of Ag colloids, and accessibility of chemical species to both inner and outer surface of the hollows, offering perspectives for a number of new technologies. An advantage of current synthesis is the ability to transform Ag NSs into monolithic hydrogels within 4-12 h, which otherwise is reported to require weeks to months for the oxidation-induced metallic gel synthesis reported to date.”
“This study was aimed at defining molecular species of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in immune complexes with immunoglobulin M (IgM). Having in mind the oligoreactivity of IgM and its preference for carbohydrate antigens, there is the possibility that it can selectively recognize known PSA glycoisoforms.

Indeed, multifarious cell processes depend on specific recognitio

Indeed, multifarious cell processes depend on specific recognition of glycans by their receptors (lectins), which translate

the sugar-encoded information into effects. Duplication of ancestral genes and the following divergence of sequences account for the evolutionary dynamics in lectin families. Differences in gene number can even appear among closely related species. The adhesion/growth-regulatory galectins are I-BET-762 clinical trial selected as an instructive example to trace the phylogenetic diversification in several animals, most of them popular models in developmental and tumor biology. Chicken galectins are identified as a low-level-complexity set, thus singled out for further detailed analysis. The various operative means for establishing protein diversity among the chicken galectins are delineated, and individual characteristics in expression profiles discerned. To apply

this galectin-fingerprinting approach in histopathology has potential for refining differential diagnosis and for obtaining prognostic assessments. On the grounds of in vitro work with tumor cells a strategically orchestrated co-regulation of galectin expression with presentation of cognate glycans is detected. This coordination epitomizes the far-reaching physiological significance of sugar coding.”
“An independent origin of the left vertebral artery from the aortic arch is the second most common aortic arch anomaly and occurs in 7% of otherwise healthy persons. Bilateral and independent origins of vertebral arteries are distinctly unusual. We present and illustrate such a case.”
“Zabott M. V., Pinto S. Aurora Kinase inhibitor B., Viott A. M., Tostes R. A., Bittencourt L. H. F. B., Konell A. L. & Gruchouskei L. 2012. [Occurrence of Dioctophyma renale in Galictis cuja.] Ocorrencia de Dioctophyma renale em

Galictis cuja. Pesquisa Veterinaria Brasileira 32(8): 786-788. Laboratorio de Parasitologia LY294002 price Veterinaria, Universidade Federal do Parana, Campus Palotina, Rua Pioneiro 2153, Palotina, PR 85950-00, Brazil. E-mail: [email protected]\n\nDioctophymosis is a parasitic disease caused by Dioctophyma renale (Goeze, 1782) with a worldwide occurrence and affects domestic animals as well as wildlife. In March 2010, a ferret adult male, Galictis cuja (Molina, 1782), found dead by trampling in the county of Guaira, state of Parana, Brazil, was necropsied in the Veterinary Pathology Laboratory at Campus Palotina, Federal University of Parana. The animal was in good nutritional condition and moderate autolysis. Three specimens of parasites were found in the abdominal cavity, but the kidneys were preserved. The parasites were fixed in acetic formaldehyde and sent to the Veterinary Laboratory of Parasitology, Campus Palotina, for identification. The parasites were identified as Dioctophyma renale, two females, one a 39cm long and 4mm wide and the other 16cm long and 4mm wide, and a male 16cm long and 3mm wide. This paper reports D.

The results showed a slow but steady incorporation of EFA

The results showed a slow but steady incorporation of EFA.

Lipids are incorporated in the oocytes early in oogenesis, and the leading cohort of oocytes is rich in lipid droplets before the onset of vitellogenesis. This indicates NSC 19893 that feeding with optimized broodstock feeds should start early to allow the incorporation of EFA in the first cohort of oocytes. At least 14weeks of feeding is required to change lipid EFA in broodstock eel to resemble EFA in the diet or in wild fish. After 44weeks of feeding, ARA was significantly higher in the neutral lipids of ovaries (1.9%) compared to visceral fat (1.2%) or muscle (1.0%). EPA:ARA ratios decreased two- to threefold in all tissues examined during that time. ARA and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 n-3) (DHA) had accumulated in ovarian polar lipids.”
“Ten new ternary complexes of Co (II), Ni (II), Cu (II), Mn(II) and Zn(II) have been synthesized by the reaction of 2-acetyl pyridine-2-amino benzoic acid and glycine, N-pyridyl phenyl amino-2-carboxylic acid and glycine. The synthesized compounds were characterized by elemental analyses, IR, (1)HNMR, and electronic MG-132 purchase spectral studies. All the ligands and metal complexes were tested against two bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli and two fungi Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus in vitro. Metal complexes exhibit more activity

than their ligands.”
“Introduction: The quality of postoperative pain management can be evaluated for structures, processes and effectiveness. In Germany, the quality of postoperative pain management can be assessed by external certification. In our clinic, this certification was associated with multifactorial changes in organization and medication. The objective of this study was to analyze

the influence of these interventions on post-surgical pain relief.\n\nMethods: The data of 130 consecutive patients undergoing defined surgical procedures were extracted prior to and after certification. On post-surgical day 2 patients were ask to rate the greatest perceived pain intensity following surgery. Pain intensity was scored at rest and on movement on a numerical selleck analogue scale (NRS) ranging from 0 (no pain) to 10 (worst pain). For statistical analysis we used the Wilcoxon test and Fisher’s exact test.\n\nResults: In the group as a whole, we found a reduction in maximum pain intensity at rest (mean +/- SD) from 4.05 +/- 2.54 to 2.18 +/- 1.82 (p<0.001) and on movement from 6.04 +/- 2.51 to 3.5 +/- 2.08 (p<0,001). We found a statistically significant increase in the number of patients with mild pain at rest (NRS <= 3) and on movement (NRS <= 5) in those undergoing thyroid surgery, thoracotomy and video-assisted thoracoscopy (p<0.05).

The factor T was found to be higher in superior field than inferi

The factor T was found to be higher in superior field than inferior field; this result held for the modelled data of each individual subject, as well as the group, representing a uniform tendency

for the bilateral advantage to be more prominent in inferior field. In fact statistical analysis and modelling of search efficiency showed that the geometrical display factors (target polar and quadrantic location, and associated crowding effects) were all remarkably consistent across subjects. Greater variability was inferred within a fixed, decisional component of response time, with individual subjects capable of opposite hemifield biases.\n\nThe results are interpretable by a guided search model of spatial attention – a first, parallel stage guiding selection by a second, C188-9 nmr serial stage – with the proviso that the first stage is relatively insular within each hemisphere. The bilateral advantage in search efficiency can then be attributed to a relative gain in target weight within the initial

parallel stage, owing to a reduction in distractor competition mediated specifically by intrahemispheric circuitry. In the absence of a target there is no effective guidance, and hence no basis for a bilateral advantage to enhance search efficiency; the equivalence of scanning speed for the two display modes (bilateral and unilateral) implies a unitary second-stage process mediated via efficient interhemispheric integration. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background/Aim. The incidence of difficult intubation (DI) is 1-10%, and DI leading to inability to intubate occurs in 0.04% Raf inhibitor review of the population. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence

of DI in thyroid surgery click here and to assess possible correlation of difficult tracheal intubation with sex and primary diagnosis. Methods. We studied 2 000 consecutive patients (1 705 females) scheduled for thyroid surgery who were assessed for DI prior to general anesthesia, with respect to primary disease diagnosis and sex. Patients were divided into four groups: patients with nodal goiter (group A), polynodal goiter (group B), hyperthyroidism (group C) and thyroid carcinoma (group D). Difficult intubation was predicted using the scoring system which included 13 parameters ranged from 0 to 2. Additive score > 5 was accepted as a predictor of DI. True DI was defined as impossible visualization of glottis with direct laryngoscopy (grade III and IV). Results. Difficult intubation was observed in 110/2 000 patients (5.5%). The incidence of DI was higher in males (26/295, 8.8%) then females (84/1 705, 4.9%) (p < 0.01). The incidence of DI was highest in the group B (6.2%). Extremely DI occurred in 15/2000 patients (0.75%), the most of them in the group C (1.1%). Sensitivity of used scoring system was 91.8% and specificity 86.5%. Conclusions.

“Background: Many patients requiring implant therapy prese

“Background: Many patients requiring implant therapy present with hopeless teeth

exhibiting periapical pathology. The advisability of implant placement in such situations has not been conclusively determined.\n\nMethods: Sixty-four patients underwent therapy in their maxillary incisor region. Treatment consisted of immediate implant placement in a site demonstrating this website periapical pathology, and immediate implant placement in a “pristine” site, either during the same visit or during separate visits. The implants placed in the sites demonstrating periapical pathology were followed in function for <= 117 months, with a mean time in function of 64 months. The implants placed in pristine sites were followed in function for <= 120 months, with a mean time in function of 62 months.\n\nResults: Two implants in the central incisor positions of one patient demonstrated 2 mm of buccal recession after months in function. These implants were deemed esthetic failures, despite the absence of inflammation and continued clinical implant immobility, yielding cumulative survival rates of 98.1 and 98.2 for implants placed in sites with periapical pathology and implants placed in sites without periapical pathology, respectively,

according to published criteria.\n\nConclusions: Implants immediately placed in sites demonstrating periapical pathology yielded results comparable to those immediately placed in pristine sites. The difference in survival rates was not statistically significant. J Periodontol 2012;83:182-186.”
“The silicon photomultiplier (Si-PM) is a promising photo-detector for PET for use in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems because it has high gain and is insensitive to static magnetic fields. Recently we developed a Si-PM-based depth-of-interaction PET system for small animals and performed simultaneous measurements by combining the Si-PM-based PET and the 0.15 T permanent MRI to test the interferences between the Si-PM-based PET and an MRI. When the Si-PM was inside the MRI and installed around the radio frequency (RF) coil of the MRI, significant noise

from the RF sequence of the MRI was observed in the analog signals of the PET detectors. However, we did not observe any artifacts in the PET images; fluctuation increased in the count rate of the Si-PM-based PET system. On the MRI side, Cell Cycle inhibitor there was significant degradation of the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) in the MRI images compared with those without PET. By applying noise reduction procedures, the degradation of the S/N was reduced. With this condition, simultaneous measurements of a rat brain using a Si-PM-based PET and an MRI were made with some degradation in the MRI images. We conclude that simultaneous measurements are possible using Si-PM-based PET and MRI.”
“In its physiological state, cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase (PKA) is a tetramer that contains a regulatory (R) subunit dimer and two catalytic (C) subunits. We describe here the 2.

Spallanzani made important observations, which he described

Spallanzani made important observations, which he described IPI-145 nmr with considerable detail, but overall he was unable to confidently support Bonnet’s theory. This letter reflects the way of thinking in the 18(th) century that shaped the important scientific fields of regeneration and reproduction. Developmental Dynamics 238:2357-2363, 2009. (C) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.”
“Lonicera japonica is used in Chinese medicine as a source of antioxidants, primarily flavonoids, and a phenolic acid chlorogenic acid (CGA). Here we report the isolation and characterization

of the full-length cDNA of LjC3H, a gene encoding p-coumaroyl ester 3-hydroxylase, an enzyme involved in CGA synthesis. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that is protein belongs to the CYP98A subfamily, and homology modeling revealed that its structure resembles that of other cytochrome P450 family proteins. Southern blot analysis indicated that more than one copy of sequences homologous to LjC3H is present in the L. japonica genome. Heterologous expression

of LjC3H cDNA in Escherichia coli allowed an in vitro assay of LjC3H to be performed. This experiment revealed that the enzyme favors p-coumaroylshikimate over p-coumaroylquinate as substrate. LjC3H transcript abundance was increased both by treatment of the leaves with methyl jasmonate and by exposure to UV-B radiation. The CGA levels in the leaves of L. japonica were positively correlated with LjC3H transcript abundance.”
“Background: Thiazovivin cell line CA4P Surgery often leads to massive destruction of the skeleton. Cell-based

bone reconstruction therapies promise new therapeutic opportunities for the repair of bone. Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) can be differentiated into osteogenic cells and are a potential cell source for bone tissue engineering. The purpose of this in vivo study was to investigate the bone formation in various constructs containing ESCs (with and without micromass technology) and insoluble collagenous bone matrix (ICBM).\n\nMethods: Murine ESCs were cultured as monolayer cultures as well as micromasses and seeded on ICBM. These constructs were implanted in immunodeficient rats. After one week, one, two and three months CT-scans were performed to detect any calcifications and the rats were sacrificed.\n\nResults: The radiological examination shows a steep increase of the mineralized tissue in group 1 (ICBM + seeded ESC). This increase can be considered as statistical significant. In contrast, the volume of the mineralization in group 2 (ICBM+ESC-spheres) and group 3 (ESC-spheres) does not increase significantly during the study.\n\nConclusion: ESCs in combination with ICBM do promote ectopic bone formation in vivo. Thus, this cell population as well as the biomaterial ICBM might be promising components for bone tissue engineering.

“BKCa channels are palmitoylated at a cluster of cysteine

“BKCa channels are palmitoylated at a cluster of cysteine residues within the cytosolic linker connecting the 1st and 2nd transmembrane domains, and this lipid modification affects their surface expression. To selleck chemicals verify the effects of palmitoylation on the diffusional dynamics of BKCa channels, we investigated their lateral movement. Compared to wild-type channels, the movement of mutant palmitoylation-deficient channels was much less confined

and close to random. The diffusion of the mutant channel was also much faster than that of the wild type. Thus, the lateral movement of BKCa channels is greatly influenced by palmitoylation. (c) 2014 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights

“Objective High-density lipoprotein (HDL) displays multiple atheroprotective activities and is highly heterogeneous in structure, composition, and function; the molecular determinants of atheroprotective functions of HDL are incompletely understood. Because phospholipids represent a major bioactive Napabucasin lipid component of HDL, we characterized the phosphosphingolipidome of major normolipidemic HDL subpopulations and related it to HDL functionality. Approach and Results Using an original liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry methodology for phospholipid and sphingolipid profiling, 162 individual molecular lipid species were quantified across the 9 lipid subclasses, in the order of decreasing abundance, phosphatidylcholine bigger than sphingomyelin bigger than lysophosphatidylcholine bigger than phosphatidylethanolamine bigger than phosphatidylinositol bigger than ceramide bigger than

phosphatidylserine bigger than phosphatidylglycerol bigger than phosphatidic acid. When data were expressed relative to total lipid, the contents of lysophosphatidylcholine and of negatively charged phosphatidylserine and phosphatidic Wnt drug acid increased progressively with increase in hydrated density of HDL, whereas the proportions of sphingomyelin and ceramide decreased. Key biological activities of HDL subpopulations, notably cholesterol efflux capacity from human THP-1 macrophages, antioxidative activity toward low-density lipoprotein oxidation, antithrombotic activity in human platelets, cell-free anti-inflammatory activity, and antiapoptotic activity in endothelial cells, were predominantly associated with small, dense, protein-rich HDL3. The biological activities of HDL particles were strongly intercorrelated, exhibiting significant correlations with multiple components of the HDL phosphosphingolipidome. Specifically, the content of phosphatidylserine revealed positive correlations with all metrics of HDL functionality, reflecting enrichment of phosphatidylserine in small, dense HDL3.