A PD stent that migrates within a nondilated PD may be difficult to remove endoscopically. JQ1 We performed endoscopic retrieval of proximally migrated PD stents after EP in 5 patients. Endoscopic retrieval was performed immediately after EP in one patient, the next day in 3 patients, and 2 weeks later in one patient. Wire-guided endoscopic retrieval was attempted in 4 patients, and the migrated stents were removed successfully in these 4
patients. No significant procedure-related complications occurred, other than mild pancreatitis in a single patient. In one patient, endoscopic retrieval performed immediately after EP failed when using the conventional method, and the migrated
stent was removed using a minisnare without a guidewire the next day; this patient developed severe pancreatitis. Wire-guided endoscopic snare retrieval seems to be a safe and effective method for removing proximally migrated PD stents after EP. (Gut Liver 2011;5:532-535)”
“We studied locomotor activity rhythms of C57/Bl6 mice under a chronic jet lag (CJL) protocol (ChrA(6/2)), which consisted of 6-hour phase advances of the light-dark schedule (LD) every 2 days. Through periodogram analysis, we found 2 components of the activity rhythm: a short-period component (21.01 +/- 0.04 h) that was entrained by the LD schedule and a long-period component (24.68 +/- 0.26 h). We developed a mathematical model comprising 2 coupled circadian oscillators that was tested experimentally PF-3084014 with different CJL schedules.
Our simulations suggested that under CJL, the system behaves as if it were under a zeitgeber with a period determined by (24 -[phase shift size/days between shifts]). Desynchronization within the system arises according to whether this effective zeitgeber is inside or outside the range of SB203580 entrainment of the oscillators. In this sense, ChrA(6/2) is interpreted as a (24 – 6/2 = 21 h) zeitgeber, and simulations predicted the behavior of mice under other CJL schedules with an effective 21-hour zeitgeber. Animals studied under an asymmetric T = 21 h zeitgeber (carried out by a 3-hour shortening of every dark phase) showed 2 activity components as observed under ChrA(6/2): an entrained short-period (21.01 +/- 0.03 h) and a long-period component (23.93 +/- 0.31 h). Internal desynchronization was lost when mice were subjected to 9-hour advances every 3 days, a possibility also contemplated by the simulations. Simulations also predicted that desynchronization should be less prevalent under delaying than under advancing CJL. Indeed, most mice subjected to 6-hour delay shifts every 2 days (an effective 27-hour zeitgeber) displayed a single entrained activity component (26.92 +/- 0.11 h).