, 2011 and Kamat et al., 2008). Cells possess different physiological self-defense mechanisms against free radicals-induced damage. The major ones are for instance, antioxidant scavengers such as glutathione (GSH), vitamin C (ascorbic acid), vitamin E (α-tocopherol), carotenoids, flavonoids, polyphenols, as well as antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase. These antioxidant self-defense mechanisms can be upregulated in response to increased ROS or peroxide production. Although it may confer protection against ROS, they
are Epigenetics Compound Library high throughput not completely effective in preventing aging-related oxidative damage (Esposito et al., 2002 and Kamat et al., 2008). Recent studies have demonstrated that age-related increases of oxidative damage in the brain is best exemplified by lipid peroxidation-derived products, AZD8055 clinical trial protein oxidation and oxidative modifications in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA, beyond the decrease in brain and plasma antioxidants (GSH and antioxidant enzymatic activity) (Droge and Schipper, 2007 and Hegde et al., 2011). In the present study, we investigated the effects of caloric restriction on oxidative stress parameters, basal antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation and DNA damage in the
hippocampus and cerebral cortex of Wistar rats. Behavioral and blood biochemical parameters were also evaluated. Sixty-day old rats were fed with laboratory chow (Table 1) ad libitum (control) or underwent
CR for 12 weeks, and were weighted weekly. The weight gain of the experimental protocol is shown in Fig. 1. Rats submitted to caloric restriction, had a decrease of 12% (P < 0.05) in body weight gain in the end of the first week of the treatment. The for difference in weight gain between groups was statistically significant throughout the experiment and achieved 17% (P < 0.05) at the end of the experiment. The biochemistry analysis of serum (Table 2) demonstrated that there were no differences in glucose, cholesterol, triacylglycerol, corticosterone, albumin and protein, indicating a good health state in all groups. On the 12th week, behavior was also analyzed by the elevated plus-maze task (Fig. 2A) and in the open-field habitation test (Fig. 2B). Based on the Kolmogorov–Smirnov goodness-of-fit test, these data were expressed as mean and standard deviation. No differences in the total time spent the open relative to closed arms of the elevated plus maze were observed between groups. However, in the open field test, CR group produced significant increase in total locomotor activity and rearing (P < 0.05). In this test, the number of lines crossed and the frequency of rearing are commonly used to evaluate general locomotor activity; however, it is also possible to evaluate willingness to explore in rodents.