Figure 2 Typical Akt inhibitor top-view SEM images of TiO 2 nanorod arrays and Sb 2 S 3 -TiO 2 nanostructures. (a) SEM image of a TiO2 nanorod array grown on SnO2:F substrate by hydrothermal
process. Inset: A low-magnification SEM image of the same sample. (b) SEM image of the as-grown Sb2S3-TiO2 nanostructures. (c) SEM image of Sb2S3-TiO2 nanostructures annealed at 300°C for 30 min. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of the bare TiO2 nanorod array, the as-synthesized Sb2S3-TiO2 nanostructure, and the annealed nanostructure are shown in Figure 3. Note in Figure 3a that the TiO2 nanorod arrays grown on the FTO-coated glass substrates had a tetragonal rutile structure (JCPDS no. 02–0494), which may be attributed to the small lattice mismatch between FTO and rutile. The as-synthesized Sb2S3-TiO2 nanostructure exhibited a weak diffraction peak (Figure 3b) at 2θ = 28.7°, corresponding to the (230) plane of
orthorhombic Sb2S3. As the annealing temperature increased, more diffraction peaks were observed, and the peaks became more distinct at the same time. Figure 3c shows the XRD pattern of the nanostructure annealed at less than 300°C. All of the reflections were indexed to an orthorhombic phase of Sb2S3 (JCPDS no. c-74-1046) . The shape of the diffraction peaks indicates that the product was well crystallized. CB-5083 chemical structure Figure 3 XRD patterns. The bare TiO2 nanorod arrays (a), the as-grown Sb2S3-TiO2 nanostructure electrode (b), and the annealed Sb2S3-TiO2 nanostructure electrode under 300°C (c). Optical property of the Sb2S3-TiO2 nanostructures The UV-visible absorption spectra of Sb2S3-TiO2 nanostructure samples are shown in Figure 4. An optical bandgap of 2.25 eV is estimated
for the as-synthesized Sb2S3 nanoparticles from the absorption spectra, which exhibits obvious blueshift compared with the value of bulk Sb2S3. After being annealed at 100°C, 200°C, eltoprazine and 300°C for 30 min, the bandgap of Sb2S3 nanoparticles was red shifted to 2.19 eV (565 nm), 2.13 eV (583 nm), and 1.73 eV (716 nm), respectively. When annealed at 400°C, the absorption spectra deteriorated, which may be attributed to the oxidation as well as the evaporation of the Sb2S3 nanoparticles. The Sb2S3-TiO2 nanostructure annealed at 300°C shows an enhanced absorption in the visible range, which is of great importance for solar cell applications and will result in higher power conversion efficiency. As shown by the XRD patterns and SEM images, this red shift in the annealed samples may be explained by the annealing-induced increase in particle size at the elevated temperatures. The annealing PF-02341066 cost effect on the optical absorption spectra of bare TiO2 nanorod arrays was also studied (not included here). No obvious difference was found between the samples with and without annealing treatment.