TORCs (transducers of regulated CREB) represent a new family of c

TORCs (transducers of regulated CREB) represent a new family of conserved CREB coactivators that function as intracellular calcium- and cAMP-sensitive coincidence detectors, controlling the kinetics of CRE-mediated responses and long-term potentiation of synaptic transmission. Here we examined the expression and activity-dependent translocaition of TORCs in adult retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), the primary target of acute retinal ischemic injury as well as chronic: retinal degenerative diseases. We found that both mRNAs of TORC1 and TORC2, but not TORC3, were enriched in adult rat retina. Comparing with TORC2, TORC1 protein was highly and

selectively expressed in RGCs. At resting condition, TORC1 protein was localized in the cytoplasm

but not nucleus of RGCs. Activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors by intravitreous injection of NMDA or increase of cAMP signaling by administration of forskolin triggered nuclear accumulation BAY 11-7082 solubility dmso of TORC1. Furthermore, transient retinal ischemic injury resulted in peri-nuclear and nuclear accumulation of TORC1 as well as transcription of BDNF in RGCs. Our results demonstrate that TORC1 is enriched in RGCs and its subcellular location could be regulated by Ca(2+) and cAMP, suggesting that manipulation of TORC1 activity may promote survival of IRGCs in some optic disease conditions. (C) 2009 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Sensory gating refers to the ability of cerebral networks to inhibit responding to irrelevant environmental stimuli, a mechanism that protects this website the brain from information overflow.

PSI-7977 cost The reduction of the P50 amplitude (an early component of the event-related potential/ERP in electrophysiological recordings) after repeated occurrence of a particular acoustic stimulus is one means to quantitatively assess gating mechanisms. Even though P50 suppression has been extensively investigated, neuroimaging studies on the cortical correlates of auditory sensory gating are so far very sparse. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is an optical imaging technique perfectly suitable for the investigation of auditory paradigms, since it involves virtually no noise. We conducted a simultaneous NIRS-ERP measurement to assess cortical correlates of auditory sensory gating in humans. The multi-channel NIRS recording indicated a specific activation of prefrontal and temporo-parietal cortices during conditions of increased sensory gating (dual-click trials). Combining the hemodynamic data with an electrophysiological index of the “”gating quality”" (gating quotient Q) revealed a positive correlation between the amount of sensory gating and the strength of the hemodynamic response during dual-clicks in the left prefrontal and temporal cortices. The results are in line with previous findings and confirm a possible inhibitory influence of the prefrontal cortex on primary auditory cortices. (C) 2009 IBRO.

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