The authors describe the most direct trajectory to the ventricula

The authors describe the most direct trajectory to the ventricular trigone using this approach and propose a point of entry that transects the cingulate gyrus at a point 5 mm superior and 5 mm posterior to the falco-tentorial junction.”
“Extinction, a form of learning that has the ability to reshape learned behavior based on new experiences, has been heavily studied

utilizing fear learning paradigms. Mechanisms underlying extinction of positive-valence associations, such as drug self-administration and place preference, are poorly understood yet may have important relevance to addiction treatment. Data suggest a major role for the noradrenergic system in extinction of fear-based learning. Employing both pharmacological and genetic approaches, we investigated DAPT in vivo the role of the alpha(2)-adrenergic receptor (alpha(2)-AR) in extinction of cocaine-conditioned CH5183284 solubility dmso place preference (CPP) and glutamatergic transmission in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST). We found

that pre-extinction systemic treatment with the alpha(2)-AR antagonist yohimbine impaired cocaine CPP extinction in C57BL/6J mice, an effect that was not mimicked by the more selective alpha(2)-AR antagonist, atipamezole. Moreover, alpha(2)A-AR knockout mice exhibited similar cocaine CPP extinction and exacerbated extinction impairing effects of yohimbine. Using acute brain slices and electrophysiological approaches, we found that yohimbine produces a slowly evolving depression of glutamatergic transmission in the BNST that was

not mimicked by atipamezole. Further, this action was extant in slices from alpha(2)A-AR knockout mice. Our data strongly suggest that extinction-modifying effects of yohimbine are unlikely to be due to actions at alpha(2)A-ARs.”
“OBJECTIVE: GW4869 Surgical approaches to the orbit require great precision and care because of the functional and aesthetic importance of this region. Conventional approaches to the posterior orbit often require bone removal, may disrupt extraocular muscles, and may create external surgical scars. We conceived a transconjunctival surgical approach to the medial intraconal space that is aided by a minimally invasive endoscopic technique and avoids muscle transection.

METHODS: Assisted by a rigid endoscope measuring 2.7 mm in diameter, with 0- and 30-degree lenses, we made a medial conjunctival incision along the limbus to approach the medial intraconal space and optic nerve in 7 fresh cadaver heads (a total of 9 procedures).

RESULTS: This approach provided direct and quick access to the medial intraconal space and intraorbital optic nerve with the use of endoscopes via an aesthetically acceptable conjunctival incision, and it provided an excellent view of the operative area. Unlike conventional techniques, this approach left the anatomy relatively undisturbed and did not require detachment of the medial rectus muscle.

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