B-raf mutations are considered an independent poor prognostic factor in colorectal cancer (18,19). Park et al. has shown higher expression of mucin regulating genes such as HATH1, MUC2 and SOX215 and Sentani et al. also reported high expression of MUC2, MUC5, Reg IV and Claudin 18 in SRCC (20,21). Overexpression of these genes leads to large amounts of intracellular mucin production, eventually forming clusters of cells, which disrupt the E-cadherin/β-catenin complex and cell-cell adhesions facilitating diffuse spread of the tumor. Ogni
et al. has proposed that higher frequency of the CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) in SRCC leads to aberrant hyper methylation and reduced expression of E-cadherin (17). Others Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical have hypothesized that the mucopolysaccharide of colloid-type carcinomas jams discrimination Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of host immunocytes from tumor cells, thus these colloid-secreting carcinomas easily invade peri-intestinal tissue resulting in infiltration into lymphatic vessels and nodes (12). The main limitation of our study is lack of central pathology review. Retrospective
nature, predominant male population and lack of information regarding patient preferences, performance status and physician biases are other limitations of the study. Despite these limitations, our study represents one of the largest retrospective Stattic solubility dmso studies of SRCC of colon. Conclusions In conclusion, mucinous Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical and SRCCs have unique clinicopathological features and are more aggressive in biologic
behavior than the common NMCC. SRCC is a poor individual prognostic factor. Because of the rarity of the tumor, prospective multi-institute Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical studies with a special focus on gene expression, may lead to development of targeted therapies and improved survival outcomes of these patients. Acknowledgements Disclosure: The authors declare no conflict of interest.
A 54-year-old white male presented to his primary physician for routine examination. He was found to have a persistently increasing PSA (>20) and he subsequently underwent a prostate biopsy. Pathology was reported as CD117 positive (CD34, S100, smooth Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical muscle actin and keratin negative) spindle cell neoplasm consistent with a gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST). There were 10 mitoses per 50 HPF and subsequent gene sequence analysis demonstrated N822K mutation Mephenoxalone at c-kit exon 17. Staging CT scan of his abdomen and pelvis demonstrated a 13 cm × 6 cm lesion extending down from his rectum to the level of the prostate as well as a 3 cm hepatic lesion concerning for metastatic disease (Figure 1). Treatment was initiated with imatinib 400 mg daily with follow-up CT scans every 3-4 months. Figure 1 CT scan at diagnosis. Six months after commencement of imatinib, CT scan showed interval increase in the size of the pelvic mass to 19 cm × 9 cm as well as several enlarged mesenteric lymph nodes and peritoneal metastases. Imatinib was increased to 800 mg daily.