\n\nResults. Two serial head CT scans from each of 50 patients (age range 0-17 years; mean age 5.5 years) were reviewed both in standard and limited-sequence forms. The limited-sequence CT adequately portrayed the ventricular system in all cases. The inaccuracy rate for selleck chemicals assessing changes in ventricular size by majority assessment (2 of 3 reviewers evaluating inaccurately) was 3 (6%) of 50. In 1 case, the inaccurate assessment would not have altered clinical management, corresponding to a 2 (4%) of 50 clinically relevant inaccuracy rate. As compared with the gold standard complete head CT series, the limited-sequence CT exhibited high sensitivity (100%)
and specificity (91%) for portraying changes in ventricular caliber. Additionally, the limited-sequence CT displayed the ventricular catheter in 91.7% of scans averaged across 3 observers. Among all scans reviewed, 97 pairs of standard head CT and complementary limited-sequence
CT scans contained adequate dosing information to calculate the effective dose (ED). The ED50 of the limited-sequence CT (0.284 mSv) differed significantly from the ED50 of the standard head SIS3 molecular weight CT (4.27 mSv) (p < 0.0001). The limited-sequence CT reflected a median absolute reduction of 4.10 mSv and a mean percent reduction of 91.8% in ED compared with standard head CT.\n\nConclusions. Limited-sequence head CT scanning provided adequate and accurate diagnostic information in children
with shunted hydrocephalus. Techniques including minimization of axial slice quantity and modification of CT scanner parameters can achieve significant dose reduction, maintaining a balance between diagnostic utility and patient safety.”
“In current study, we describe blood pressure (BP)-lowering, endothelium-dependent, and independent vasodilator and cardio-modulatory actions of Carum roxburghianum seed. The crude extract of C. roxburghianum seed (Cr. Cr) induced dose-dependent (10-100 mg/kg) fall in arterial BP of anaesthetized rats. In isolated rabbit aorta, Cr. Cr (0.3-10 mg/mL) inhibited high K+ (80 mM) and phenylephrine (PE, 1 mu M)-induced contractions, like verapamil and papaverine. In endothelium-intact rat aortic preparations, N-omega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride-sensitive vasodilator activity was observed selleck chemicals llc with Cr. Cr, which also relaxed endothelium-denuded aorta tissues. In guinea-pig atria, Cr. Cr initially caused mild cardiac stimulation, followed by inhibition, as shown by papaverine. These results reveal that cardiovascular effects of C. roxburghianum seed extract are mediated possibly through combination of Ca++ antagonist, nitric oxide modulating and phosphodiesterase inhibitory mechanisms, though further in-depth studies are required for elucidating precise mode of action.”
“This work describes the synthesis of a series of fatty acid hydrazide derivatives of isoniazid (INH).