0 kGy were acceptable under storage for 60 days, compared to 30 d

0 kGy were acceptable under storage for 60 days, compared to 30 days for air-packaged non-irradiated samples.”
“To improve the antifouling characteristics, CCI-779 ic50 polypropylene microporous membranes (PPHFMMs) were surface-modified by the sequential photoinduced graft polymerization of acrylic acid and acrylamide. The grafting density and the grafting chain length, which played

important roles in the antifouling characteristics, were controlled in the first and the second step, respectively. The ATR/FTIR results clearly indicated the successful modification on the membrane surface. The static water contact angle of the modified membrane reduced obviously with the increase of the grafting chain length. The contact angle of the acrylic acid modified membranes was lower than that of the

acrylamide modified membrane with similar grafting chain length. The grafting chain length increased with the increase of UV irradiation time and monomer concentration. The grafting chain length of poly(acrylic acid) (PAAc) was lower than that of the polyacrylamide (PAAm) under the same polymerization conditions. Pure water flux for the modified membranes increased with the increase of grafting chain length, and had maximums. The antifouling GSK2879552 ic50 characteristics of the modified membranes in a submerged membrane-bioreactor (SMBR) were evaluated. The modified membranes showed better filtration performances in the SMBR than the unmodified membrane, and the acrylic acid grafted membrane presented better antifouling characteristics than acrylamide modified membranes. The results demonstrated that the surface carboxyl-containing membranes were better than the surface amido-containing PF-6463922 mw membranes. The results of Pearson correlations demonstrated that the PAAc modified membranes with longer grafting chain length had higher flux recoveries, while the PAAm modified membranes with longer grafting chain length had lower flux recoveries. (C) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 115: 2302-2309, 2010″
“Background: The wide use of gametocytocidal artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) lead to a reduction

of Plasmodium falciparum transmission in several African endemic settings. An increased impact on malaria burden may be achieved through the development of improved transmission-blocking formulations, including molecules complementing the gametocytocidal effects of artemisinin derivatives and/or acting on Plasmodium stages developing in the vector. Azadirachtin, a limonoid (tetranortriterpenoid) abundant in neem (Azadirachta indica, Meliaceae) seeds, is a promising candidate, inhibiting Plasmodium exflagellation in vitro at low concentrations. This work aimed at assessing the transmission-blocking potential of NeemAzal (R), an azadirachtin-enriched extract of neem seeds, using the rodent malaria in vivo model Plasmodium berghei/Anopheles stephensi.

Methods: Anopheles stephensi females were offered a blood-meal on P.

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