Methods We systematically searched PUBMED/MEDLINE and the

Methods. We systematically searched PUBMED/MEDLINE and the

Cochrane databases for articles published on knee injections and evaluated their level of evidence and recommendations according to established criteria. Results. The evidence supports the use of intraarticular corticosteroid injections for rheumatoid arthritis (1A+ Level), osteoarthritis (1A+ Level), and juvenile idiopathic arthritis (2C+ Level). Pain relief and functional improvement are significant for months up to 1 year after the injection. Triamcinolone hexacetonide offers an advantage over triamcinolone acetonide and should be the intraarticular steroid of choice (2B+ Level). Intraarticular injection of hyaluronate may provide longer pain relief than steroid injection in osteoarthritis (2B+ Level). It can also be effective for rheumatoid arthritis knee pain (1A+ Level). However, it is only recommended for patients this website with significant surgical risk factors and for patients with mild radiographic disease in whom conservative treatment has failed (2B +/- Level). Botulinum toxin type A injection is effective in reducing arthritic knee pain (2B+ Level), and so is tropisetron (2B+ Level) and tanezumab (2B+ Level). The new agents, such as rAAV2-TNFR:Fc, SB-210396/CE 9.1, and various radioisotopes have provided various degrees of success, Selleck AZD8186 but their long-term safety and efficacy

remains to be determined. Conclusions. We conclude that strong evidence supports the use of intraarticular knee injection as a valuable intervention in the continuum of management of arthritis between conservative treatment and BYL719 chemical structure knee surgeries.”
“Cerebral venous thrombosis is an uncommon and diverse entity accounting for less than 1% of strokes. It can present with a variety of clinical symptoms ranging from isolated headaches to deep coma making the clinical diagnosis difficult. We present a rare case of cerebral venous thrombosis secondary to dehydration and inflammatory bowel disease.”
“AimTo determine the adequacy of antenatal calcium intake in Malaysia, and the influencing factors.

MethodsA cross-sectional

study was conducted among postnatal women who delivered in two tertiary hospitals. Data were collected from antenatal cards, hospital documents and diet recall on daily milk and calcium intake during pregnancy. SPSS version 19.0 was used for statistical analyses.

ResultsA total of 150 women were studied. The total daily calcium intake was 83443mg (mean +/- standard error of the mean), but the calcium intake distribution curve was skewed to the right with a median intake of 725mg daily. When calcium intake from milk and calcium supplements was excluded, the daily dietary calcium intake was only 478 +/- 25mg. Even with inclusion of milk and calcium supplements, more than a third (n=55 or 36.7%) of the women consumed less than 600mg calcium in their daily diet.

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