This work was supported by the NSF (IOS 0542372, P S ; DMR-082049

This work was supported by the NSF (IOS 0542372, P.S.; DMR-0820492, D.K. [MRSEC program]), the HFSP (RGY0042- P.S.), the NIH (core grant P30 NS45713

to the Brandeis Biology Department; F31 DC011467, D.M.Z.; R00 GM87533, R.A.B.), the DGIST MIREBrain and Convergence Science Center (12-BD-0403) and Basic Science Research Program (2012009385) of the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology, Korea (K.K.), the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (PGS-D3), and the Brandeis National Committee (S.J.N.), a gift from the Jensam Foundation (C.I.B.), and SAR405838 ic50 the Howard Hughes Medical Institute (C.I.B.). C.I.B. is an Investigator of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute. Author contributions: H.J., K.K., S.J.N., and D.M.Z. performed the experiments; E.M., D.K. and R.B. provided reagents; Capmatinib H.J., K.K., C.I.B., and P.S. analyzed and interpreted data; C.I.B. and P.S. wrote

the manuscript. “
“In most species, males and females display sex-specific behavioral repertoires. Courtship and mating behaviors elicited by pheromones are among the most obvious sexually dimorphic repertoires because they are innate and stereotyped (Stowers and Logan, 2010). What are the neural differences that give rise to different behaviors in each sex? Behavioral differences could be due to differences in the ability of each sex to detect pheromone or to differences in the processing of pheromone sensory information. For example, female mice with an impaired vomeronasal organ exhibit male mating behaviors, suggesting that the underlying neural circuitry is the same in both sexes but only active in males (Kimchi et al., 2007). It may be that females others are capable of smelling pheromones that males cannot and that smelling these compounds represses male mating. In this case, the difference is at the level of detection. Alternatively, male flies detect

pheromone identically to females (Kurtovic et al., 2007) but possess male-specific ganglia that initiate male courtship behavior (Clyne and Miesenböck, 2008; Kohatsu et al., 2011), even in an animal that is otherwise female (Kimura et al., 2008). Here, both sexes smell the same compound, cis-vaccenyl acetate, but male and female higher brain centers generate different responses ( Kurtovic et al., 2007). Thus, in this case, the difference is at the level of processing. The two mechanisms are not mutually exclusive. In Manduca sexta, transplanting the nascent male sensory apparatus (his antennae) to a female larva induces male development in the female brain, and the adult animal has male behaviors ( Schneiderman et al., 1986). The reciprocal switch generates an animal that has female behaviors ( Kalberer et al., 2010). In this case, a difference in detection induces sexually dimorphic wiring, resulting in a difference in processing. Behavior that depends only on differences in detection could be easily modulated, for example, by regulating chemoreceptor expression.

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