The main scattering mechanisms Androgen Receptor Antagonist libraries in one- to three-layer graphene are Coulomb scattering [21–23], short-range scattering  and phonon scattering by graphene phonon . To further study the scattering mechanism in our device, we investigated temperature-dependent resistance as a function of the electric field E. Shown in Figure 4 are the dimensionless resistance R T /R T = 5K as a function
of the electric field E at different temperatures, for (a) tri- and (b) four-layer graphene interconnects. Insets display the optical micrographs of the FLG interconnect. At a lower temperature range of 5 to 50 K, as the electric field increases from 0 to 0.6 V/μm, the resistance of the tri- and four-layer graphene interconnects show a reduction of about 30% and 70%, respectively. However, for the temperature range T ≥ 200 K, the corresponding resistance drop is smaller. The larger drops of the resistance at lower temperature range indicate that Coulomb scattering is the main transport mechanism in the FLG interconnects at this temperature range as it is proportional to the
carrier density. Hence, Coulomb scattering is strongly dependent on temperature. We further note that with increasing temperature, the observed results indicate that the scattering induced by electric field Tubastatin A cell line from the substrate surface polar phonons is significantly screened by the additional graphene layers at room temperature [21, 22]. Figure 4 Dimensionless resistance, R ( T )/ R (5 K ), buy CX-6258 versus electric field E at different temperatures for (a) tri- and (b) four-layer graphene. The resistance of graphene interconnects drops substantially as the electric field is increasing; the corresponding resistance drop is larger for low temperatures. Inset is an optical micrograph of the tri- and four-layer graphene with four Cr/Au contact electrodes, respectively. In order
see more to further study the VRH and localized insulating behaviour, we investigate temperature dependence of electronic transport measurements on a tri- and four-layer graphene. Figure 5 shows the temperature dependence of the resistance measurement of the tri- and four-layer graphene. We define the relative change in resistance normalized by the temperature at 5 K: R T /R T = 5K , whereby we investigate the temperature dependence change of the resistance. In Figure 5, we present the electrical resistance of the three and four layers of graphene interconnects as a function of temperature. The results show that an appreciable monotonic increase of R T /R T = 5K is observed for decreasing temperature for both the tri- and four-layer graphene. This R-T behaviour indicates that the carriers transport in the graphene layers is non-metallic in nature. This implies that, the resistance does not originate from thermal activation but is attributed to ES VRH between localized states induced by the charge impurities [20–23].