The Aroma-Chology Review 2000, 9:1–5 29 Burton Goldberg G: Alte

The Aroma-Chology Review 2000, 9:1–5. 29. Burton Goldberg G: Alternative Medicine: The Definitive Guide. 2nd edition. Puyallup, WA: Future Medicine Pub; 1993. Competing interests Authors of this check details paper have not received any financial remuneration for preparing this paper. The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Authors’ contributions The authors’ responsibilities were as follows–A.M. is responsible for research design, conducting laboratory tests, statistical analysis and manuscript preparation. A.R. was responsible for subject recruitment and laboratory tests assistance. Both authors read and approved the final manuscript.”

Acute strenuous exercise can temporarily impact components of both innate and adaptive immunity [1]. One of the first lines of defense in the innate immune system against pathogens is salivary immunoglobulin A (s-IgA). Salivary immunoglobulins are the first barrier to colonization by microorganisms

causing upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) [2], and s-IgA is the predominant immunoglobulin in mucosal fluids serving to inhibit the attachment and replication of pathogens and neutralize viruses and toxins. Whereas acute PFT�� in vitro bouts of moderate exercise are not implicated in mucosal immunity, prolonged high intensity endurance exercise seems to provoke alterations in the level of s-IgA [3]– [5]. In addition, low resting levels of s-IgA have been correlated with an increased risk of URTI among Blasticidin S cell line competitive swimmers

[5] and American football players [4]. Nevertheless, several studies have reported either an increase [6] or no change [7, 8] in s-IgA following exercise. The Methocarbamol differences in reported findings among studies may be related to the differences in modes of exercise, nutritional status, and the techniques in which s-IgA levels are expressed [6]. Cytokines, components of adaptive immunity, are proteins that control inflammatory and immune responses that are secreted by several types of immune cells. Contraction of skeletal muscle has also been shown to release several plasma cytokines (myokines) into the circulation [9]. Specifically, heavy exercise produces a rapid, transient increase in cytokine production, which entails increases in both pro-inflammatory (IL-2, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, TNFα) and anti-inflammatory (IL-1ra, IL-10) cytokines [10]. However, the majority of studies examining cytokine responses have focused on acute endurance exercise and less is known about the effects of resistance exercise on cytokines. Willoughby et al. reported that IL-6 mRNA and plasma IL-6 increased 4–6 hr post-exercise following eccentric resistance exercise in knee extensors [11]. A study by Fatouros et al. found that IL-2 increased significantly, whereas IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8 did not change following 30 min of circuit resistance training [12].

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