Species with different social systems might be expected to show d

Species with different social systems might be expected to show different balances of factors that influence vigilance behaviour. The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. Published by Smoothened inhibitor Elsevier Ltd.”
“Background: In photoacoustic imaging (PAI), the reduction of scanning time is a major concern for PAI in practice. A popular strategy is to reconstruct the image

from the sparse-view sampling data. However, the insufficient data leads to reconstruction quality deteriorating. Therefore, it is very important to enhance the quality of the sparse-view reconstructed images. Method: In this paper, we proposed a joint total variation and L-p-norm (TV-L-p) based image reconstruction algorithm for PAI. In this algorithm, the reconstructed image is updated by calculating its total variation value and L-p-norm value. Along with the iteration, an operator-splitting framework is utilized to reduce the computational cost and the Barzilai-Borwein step size selection method is adopted to obtain the faster convergence. Results and conclusion:

Through the numerical simulation, the proposed algorithm is validated and compared with other widely used PAI reconstruction algorithms. It is revealed in the simulation result that the proposed algorithm may be more accurate than the other algorithms. Moreover, the computational cost, the convergence, the robustness to noises and the tunable parameters of the algorithm are all discussed respectively. We also implement the TV-L-p algorithm in the in-vitro experiments to verify its performance in practice. Through the numerical simulations PD173074 manufacturer and in-vitro experiments,

it is demonstrated that the proposed algorithm enhances the quality of the reconstructed images with faster calculation speed and convergence.”
“In macromolecular and material science, atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) has intensely influenced the research strategies facilitating fabrication of a wide range of polymers with well-defined structures and functions and their conjugation with biomolecules. Recently, the required copper (I) catalyst for ATRP process is generated by photoinduced redox reactions involving the in situ reduction of Cu(II) Bcl-2 phosphorylation to Cu(I). Photochemically initiated reactions provide several distinct advantages, including temporal and spatial controls, rapid and energy efficient activation. The process is based on photoredox reactions of copper catalysts under various radiation sources with or without various photoinitiators. This Highlight focuses on the historical development, mechanistic aspects, limitations, and opportunities of photoinitiated ATRP along with selected examples. (C) 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.”
“Introduction: Adhesion formation is a frequent and serious post-operative problem in ENT surgery.

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