\n\nConclusions Unexpectedly, the lesion area of the entire aorta was reduced significantly in the AAV8-ASM virus-treated group. Hepatic expression and secretion of ASM into the circulation did not accelerate or exacerbate, but rather decreased, lesion formation in ApoE(-/-) mice. Thus, plasma ASM activity does not appear to be rate limiting for plaque formation during atherogenesis. Copyright (C) 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.”
“Voltage-gated calcium (Ca(2+)) channels
are thought to play an important role in epileptogenesis and seizure generation. Here, using the whole cell configuration of patch-clamp techniques, we report on the modifications of biophysical and pharmacological properties of high threshold voltage-activated Ca(2+) channel currents in inferior colliculus (IC) neurons of the genetically
Bcl-2 lymphoma epilepsy-prone rats (GEPR-3s). Ca(2+) channel currents were measured by depolarizing pulses from a holding potential of -80 mV using barium (Ba(2+)) as the charge carrier. We found that the current density of high threshold voltage-activated Ca(2+) channels was significantly larger in IC neurons of seizure-naive GEPR-3s compared to control Sprague-Dawley rats, and that seizure episodes further enhanced the current density in the GEPR-3s. The increased current density was reflected by both a -20 mV shifts in channel activation and a 25% increase in the non-inactivating fraction of channels in seizure-naive GEPR-3s. Such changes were reduced by seizure episodes in the GEPR-3s. Pharmacological analysis of the current density suggests that upregulation www.selleckchem.com/ALK.html of L-, N- and R-type of Ca(2+) channels may contribute to IC neuronal hyperexcitability
that leads to seizure susceptibility in the GEPR-3s. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Introduction: Many medical associations recommend nephron-sparing surgery (NSS) for tumours larger than 4 cm amenable to partial nephrectomy (PN). These recommendations are, however, mostly based on isolated reports. We systematically review the oncological outcomes of partial nephrectomy procedures performed for tumours larger than Cilengitide 4-cm. Methods: A PubMed search was carried out using keywords “partial nephrectomy” and “nephron sparing” for records dating back to 1995. In total, 2136 abstracts were analyzed; from these, 174 studies were scrutinized. We identified 32 manuscripts reporting size-specific cancer-specific survival rates for masses greater than 4 cm. From each of these studies, we recorded the number of PN, tumour diameter, follow-up duration, 5- and 10-year recurrence, overall and cancer-specific survival rates (OS, CSS). We also calculated weighted OS and CSS rates. Results: This systematic review includes 2445 patients with renal tumours larger than 4 cm who underwent PN: 1858 patients with tumours between 4 to 7 cm, 410 patients with tumours larger than 7 cm and 177 patients with tumours greater than 4 cm (exact size unknown).