Hence, as CD1d traffics steadily through the cell, an immune syna

Hence, as CD1d traffics steadily through the cell, an immune synapse containing saturated-tail, hydrophobic antigen is more likely to endure, and sustain the signalling required for a Th1 response. Using inducible knockout CD1d mice, Bai et al.[79] demonstrated that Th1-type antigen presentation

requires dendritic cell (DC) -expressed CD1d, whereas Th2-type antigen, loaded into CD1d at the cell surface, is presented by a range of non-IL-12-producing APC. This distinction is important as DC-derived IL-12 induces production of IFN-γ by NK cells, explaining further how a Th1 cytokine bias is achieved. Several studies report the influence of Selleckchem Enzalutamide cell-surface receptors on iNKT cells on their cytokine response. CD40, CD4, programmed death receptor PD-1 and the A2aR adenosine receptor can all influence cytokine polarization.[80-83] The iNKT response to danger is shaped by many factors in addition to antigen. Responses are programmed by the starting activation state of iNKT cells, and by the activity of APC. Activation of APC leads to alterations in antigen presentation, including changes in CD1d expression and changes to the repertoire of self-antigens associated with CD1d. The APC-derived cytokines also mediate activation of iNKT cells, sometimes independently of the CD1d–ligand–TCR interaction. In many infectious contexts,

it is APC-derived cytokine in concert with self-antigen–CD1d signalling that activates iNKT cells (summarized in Fig. 2). The recent history of an iNKT cell dictates its responsiveness. αGalCer stimulation leads to temporary anergy,[84] which has impaired the LY294002 development of αGalCer-based therapeutic protocols. Similarly, encounter with a range of bacteria, or the bacterial products lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and flagellin, anergizes iNKT cells.[85] Neutrophils, themselves activated by iNKT cells, can also suppress iNKT-cell activity, Tolmetin limiting an iNKT-cell response.[86] The iNKT cells that have recently encountered self-antigen have limited cytokine-secreting

activity, and lowered responsiveness to foreign antigen (αGalCer).[87] Such mechanisms may well restrain potentially harmful iNKT-cell activity, though recognition of CD1d-presented self-antigen also primes iNKT cells for subsequent activation by IL-12 and IL-18.[87] The APC expression of CD1d is responsive to bacterial infection, which in turn affects iNKT activation. Infection of APC with Listeria monocytogenes leads to IFN-β-mediated up-regulation of CD1d (not just its redistribution to the cell surface),[88] and in an M. tuberculosis infection model, IFN-γ in combination with bacterial products Pam3Cys [a Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) agonist] or LPS (a TLR4 agonist) was sufficient to up-regulate CD1d on macrophages.[89] In vitro exposure of DC to Salmonella typhimurium or Escherichia coli-derived LPS has also been found to increase CD1d levels.

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