, 2011; Thakur & Sanyal, 2011; Fig 1a) Clustered KTs are found

, 2011; Thakur & Sanyal, 2011; Fig. 1a). Clustered KTs are found in S. pombe as well except at metaphase where multiple foci of KT proteins were observed (Goshima et al., 1999; Tanaka et al., 2009; Jakopec et al., 2012). Although the exact nature of KT architecture in yeasts is uncertain, various genetic and biochemical studies indicate the presence of functional homologs of Vorinostat price several KT proteins at distinct layers of a human KT in these yeasts (Table 1). Determination of relative positions of different proteins at the

respective KTs by ‘single molecule high-resolution colocalization’ demonstrates that axial localization of proteins at the KT at distinct phases of mitosis in S. cerevisiae (Joglekar et al., 2009) and humans is largely conserved (Wan et al., 2009; Fig. 1b). However, such studies are yet to be carried out in S. pombe and C. albicans. Nevertheless, the difference in the cross-linking time of KT proteins of C. albicans with CEN chromatin indicates a structural similarity between C. albicans (Sanyal et al., 2004; Roy et al., 2011; Thakur & Sanyal, 2011) and metazoans KTs. Dynamics of assembly of KT proteins is dissimilar in yeasts and metazoans. In metazoans, only the CEN-specific histone H3 variant and an inner KT-associated super-complex, commonly

known as constitutive centromere-associated network, remain localized at the KT throughout the cell cycle (Foltz et al., selleck inhibitor 2006; Liu et al., 2006; Okada et al., 2006). Localization/delocalization dynamics of middle and outer KT proteins is specific to stages of the cell cycle. For example, a middle KT protein

and a MT interacting protein are loaded at the KT at late interphase and delocalize from the KT Selleckchem Depsipeptide during transition of late anaphase to telophase in metazoans (Liu et al., 2006; Cheeseman & Desai, 2008; Cheeseman et al., 2008). In contrast, proteins from all layers of a KT exhibit constitutive localization at the CEN in S. cerevisiae (Meluh et al., 1998; Goshima & Yanagida, 2000) and C. albicans (Sanyal & Carbon, 2002; Roy et al., 2011; Thakur & Sanyal, 2011). All the outer KT proteins of S. pombe localize at the CEN only during mitosis except one component, which remains localized at the KT throughout the cell cycle (Liu et al., 2005; Sanchez-Perez et al., 2005). Organization of CENs in different fungi including several yeast species can be classified into three categories: point, large regional and small regional CENs (Roy & Sanyal, 2011; Sanyal, 2012). S. cerevisiae has short point CENs (< 400 bp) with conserved DNA motifs for protein binding, and thus, they are genetically defined (Fitzgerald-Hayes et al., 1982; Hieter et al., 1985). In contrast, S. pombe has longer regional CENs (≥ 40 kb) consisting of repetitive as well as unique DNA elements (Clarke et al., 1986; Nakaseko et al., 1987; Fishel et al., 1988; Takahashi et al., 1992; Steiner et al., 1993; Baum et al., 1994; Wood et al., 2002). C.

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