16 An alternative approach to expansion of nTregs in vitro may be

16 An alternative approach to expansion of nTregs in vitro may be to use biological therapies such as anti-tumour necrosis factor-α antibodies so as to maximize the function of nTregs in vivo.9,50 The development

of iTregs for clinical applications might provide a superior alternative in IBD. In mouse models, iTregs are known to prevent T-cell driven colitis,37 and it may be easier to generate cells specific for relevant antigens using this approach. In addition to differentiation using compounds such as TGF-β and rapamycin,51 iTregs can be generated when naive T cells are stimulated in vitro by tolerogenic dendritic see more cells, which are from the intestine and GS-1101 purchase induce antigen-specific FoxP3+ Tregs in a TGF-β and retinoic acid dependent manner.52–55 A slight variation on this strategy would be to use vitamin A or its derivative, retinoic acid, to directly enhance tolerance and the generation of iTregs in the intestine in vivo.21,56 Antigens could also be targeted to tolerogenic intestinal dendritic cells in vivo using a single-chain antibody specific for unique cell surface makers as a delivery system.57 This latter strategy is thought to mimic the natural process of oral tolerance where antigens are presented by tolerogenic dendritic cells58 and

so may generate more effective and stable populations of antigen-specific iTregs in comparison with in Benzatropine vitro-derived cells. In addition to FoxP3+ Tregs, Tr1 cells are also candidates for cellular therapy in mucosal diseases. The intestinal environment naturally relies on IL-10 for the maintenance of immune homeostasis; in mouse models, IL-10 secretion by myeloid intestinal cells is required to maintain Treg

suppressive capacity,59 and Tregs themselves must secrete IL-10 to prevent colitis.18,34,35 In a therapeutic setting, subcutaneous delivery of human recombinant IL-10 produced disappointing clinical results, but this was probably the result of protein degradation and a suboptimal route of delivery.7,60 An alternative strategy, delivering IL-10 to the target environment using genetically modified bacteria, is currently being tested in humans.61 Tr1-mediated delivery of IL-10, however, should offer a therapeutic advantage over direct protein delivery because of the possibility of delivering antigen-specific suppression. Following studies in mice showing that ovalbumin (OVA)-specific Tr1 cells prevent colitis following transfer of polyclonal T cells, a Phase I/II clinical trial was initiated to test if OVA-specific Tr1 cell clones could also treat refractory Crohn’s disease.

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