We explored these patterns, and found two clusters of contiguous genes with paraphyletic distributions, suggesting horizontal transference of genetic material. Figure 4 Groups of orthology among seventeen Xanthomonas genomes. A cladogram of phylogenetic relationships inferred here is shown on the left. Coloured boxes represent groups of orthologs as detected by OrthoMCL. Each column represents a pattern of presence/absence, and the width of the boxes is proportional to the number of genes BIX 1294 showing the given pattern. The colour code is as follows:
blue for monophyletic patterns involving all the strains on each FHPI species (the pattern including all the genomes coloured light blue); green for evolutionary changes below the species level; and red for patterns involving strains from more than one species and excluding at least one strain of these species. Patterns are ordered by number of genes: columns Selleckchem Mocetinostat decrease in number of genes from left to right. The first cluster (Figure 5a) is present in Xci3, Xeu8, Xcc8 and XccB, but absent in other genomes of X. campestris, in X. axonopodis and in X. fuscans. Similar genes were also found in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enterica and other species of the genera Pseudomonas, Salmonella and Acidovorax (Additional file 4). This cluster is mainly composed of putative secreted and membrane proteins, with few characterized
orthologs. In Xanthomonas, only three of those genes have been characterized. The first two code for VirD4 and VirB4, which are proteins implicated in protein secretion by the Type IV secretion system in several bacteria, including Helicobacter, Agrobacterium and Bartonella [59, 60]. The third codes for RadC, a protein involved in DNA repair. The gene at the locus XCV2366_1 from Xeu8 presents homology with the oxidoreductase DbsA, an important protein for oxidative folding of disulphide-bonded proteins in Gram-negative bacteria . Only nine out of the nineteen
genes in this cluster present a G+C content at least one standard deviation distant from the average for the coding regions within the Xeu8 genome (64.66 ± 3.91%). The values of Codon Adaptation Index (CAI) Farnesyltransferase for the seventeen genes in the cluster were similar to the values obtained for other regions of the genome. The distribution of this cluster along the genus suggests flow of genetic material between different pathovars of Xanthomonas. However, G+C content and CAI analyses failed to relate this cluster to LGT. Furthermore, LGT regions predicted by AlienHunter  do not cover more than one gene in this region in any of the analysed genomes (data not shown). Interestingly, in all the genomes, predicted LGT regions surround the cluster at distances from one to eight Kbp. Figure 5 Clusters of genes identified by patterns of orthology.