Using real-time PCR, mtDNA quantification was analyzed in unferti

Using real-time PCR, mtDNA quantification was analyzed in unfertilized oocytes and uncleaved embryos. The size of the ovum was also assessed by calculating the ooplasmic volume at the time of granulosa cell removal for IVF or ICSI. Quantification analysis of the mtDNA in blastomeres was performed by real-time PCR at the 7-8 cell stage of the cleaved embryos at 72 h after oocyte retrieval. We calculated the cytoplasmic volume of the blastomeres.

Our studies showed a significantly lower mtDNA copy number in unfertilized oocytes and uncleaved embryos in women who were older than 40 years of this website age (p < 0.05). The larger ooplasmic volume was also associated with

earlier and more rapid cleavage (p < 0.05). The ooplasmic volume was

also significantly larger in the group achieving pregnancy. We found a significant positive correlation between blastomere volume and the number of mtDNA copies (r = 0.76, p < 0.01, from Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient).

We have shown that blastomere volume is directly proportional to the number of mtDNA copies. Therefore, larger cytoplasmic volume, with earlier cleavage speed, implies more mtDNA copies. Evaluation of mtDNA quantification and the measurement of ooplasmic and blastomere volume may be useful for selection of high quality embryo and pregnancy outcome.”
“Relationship between lumbar disc degeneration and segmental SB202190 inhibitor instability has remained controversial. Using instability factors that found close relations with symptoms in flexion-extension radiographic study, their relationship with degenerative findings was examined. More than (a parts per thousand yen) 3 mm slip in neutral position (SN), a parts per thousand yen3 mm translation (ST), and a parts per thousand yen10A degrees angulation (SA) at L4/5 segment were Selleck ZD1839 defined as instability factors and were applied on 447 patients who had low back and/or leg pain and satisfied

inclusion criteria for accurate measurements. Radiologic findings for degeneration were disc height including three groups with different disc heights divided by mean +/- A 1 standard deviation, length of the anterior spur formation, presence of vacuum phenomenon, and endplate sclerosis. As results, group with SN factor was the oldest in age and the lowest in disc height; in contrast, group with SA was the youngest in age and the highest in disc height. The group with ST showed a mid-standing position in both age and disc height. These findings indicate that instability factors are intimately related to age and disc height. The three different disc height groups showed more anterior slip according to the progression of the disc height diminution. Presence of the apparent spur formation and/or vacuum phenomenon had an intimate relationship with the ST factor.

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