These new and integrative studies, along with those using a genet

These new and integrative studies, along with those using a genetic approach to understand color perception, raise some important questions. Most notably, how does selection shape both phenotypic and genetic variation, and how can we use this information to further understand check details the phenotypic diversity generated by evolutionary processes?”
“Epigenetic mechanisms have been widely implicated in synaptic plasticity and in memory consolidation, yet little is known about the role of epigenetic mechanisms in memory reconsolidation processes. In the present study, we systematically examine

the role of histone acetylation and DNA methylation in the reconsolidation of an amygdala-dependent Pavlovian fear memory. We first show that the acetylation of histone 3 (H3), but not histone 4 (H4), is regulated following auditory fear memory retrieval in the lateral nucleus of the amygdala (LA). We next show that histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition in the LA enhances both retrieval-induced histone acetylation and reconsolidation of an auditory fear

A-1331852 in vitro memory. Conversely, inhibition of DNA methytransferase (DNMT) activity in the LA significantly impairs both retrieval-related H3 acetylation and fear memory reconsolidation. The effects of HDAC and DNMT inhibitors on fear memory reconsolidation were observed to be time-limited and were not evident in the absence of memory reactivation. Further, memories lost following DNMT inhibition were not observed to be vulnerable to spontaneous recovery, reinstatement, or to a shift in testing context, suggesting that memory impairment DOCK10 was not the result of facilitated extinction. Finally, pretreatment with the HDAC inhibitor was observed to rescue the reconsolidation deficit induced by the DNMT inhibitor. These findings collectively suggest that histone acetylation and DNA methylation are critical for reconsolidation of fear memories in the LA.”

Individuals with a family history of depression may be more likely to develop depression due to an innate vulnerability of their serotonergic system. However, even though serotonergic vulnerability may constitute a risk factor in the development of depression, it does not seem to be sufficient to cause a depressive episode. Based on previous data, it is suggested that stress may be a mediating factor.

Objectives This study examined the role of serotonin (5-HT) in stress coping in individuals with or without a family history of depression.

Materials and methods Nineteen healthy first-degree relatives of depressive patients (FH+) and 19 healthy controls without a family history of depression (FH-) were tested in a double-blind placebo-controlled design for affective processing under acute stress exposure, following acute tryptophan depletion (ATD) or placebo.

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