The molecular mechanisms and genetic underpinnings of age-related changes in the brain Torin 2 are understudied, and, while they share some overlap with peripheral mechanisms of aging, many are unique to the largely non-mitotic brain. Hence, understanding mechanisms of brain aging and identifying associated modulators may have profound consequences for the prevention and treatment of age-related impairments and diseases. Here we review current knowledge on age-related functional and structural changes, their molecular
and genetic underpinnings, and discuss how these pathways may contribute to the vulnerability to develop age-related neurological diseases. We highlight recent findings from human post-mortem brain microarray studies, which we hypothesize, point to a potential genetically controlled transcriptional program underlying molecular changes
and age-gating of neurological diseases. Finally, we discuss the implications of this model for understanding basic mechanisms of brain aging and for the future investigation of RG-7388 mouse therapeutic approaches. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“A multitude of organic transformations catalyzed by dirhodium(II) (Rh-2) complexes are thought to proceed via the intermediacy of highly reactive, electrophilic carbenoid intermediates that have eluded direct observation. Herein, we report the generation of a metastable Rh-2-carbenoid intermediate supported by a donor-acceptor carbene fragment. This intermediate is stable for a period of similar to 20 hours in chloroform solution at 0 degrees C, allowing for an exploration
of its physical and chemical properties. The Rh=C bond, characterized by vibrational and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, extended x-ray absorption Selisistat nmr fine structure analysis, and quantum-chemical calculations, has weak sigma and pi components. This intermediate performs stoichiometric cyclopropanation and C-H functionalization reactions to give products that are identical to those obtained from analogous Rh-2 catalysis.”
“Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) is an increasingly reported entity. Extensive pancreatic calcification is generally thought to be a sign of chronic pancreatitis, but it may occur simultaneously with IPMN leading to diagnostic difficulties. We report a case of a patient initially diagnosed with chronic calcifying pancreatitis who was later shown to have a malignant IPMN. This case illustrates potential pitfalls in the diagnosis of IPMN in the case of extensive pancreatic calcification as well as clues that may lead the clinician to suspecting the diagnosis. The possible mechanisms of the relation between pancreatic calcification and IPMN are also reviewed. (c) 2009 The WJG Press and Baishideng.