The measured optical transmission of the heterojunction is 70-80%

The measured optical transmission of the heterojunction is 70-80% in

the infrared and visible regions. Absorption occurs in the UV region, which corresponds to the band gaps of LNO and In-MZO, suggesting that these heterojunctions formed by transparent LNO and In-MZO films could be used find more as UV detectors and transparent electronic devices. (C) 2012 The Japan Society of Applied Physics”
“Regulated protein degradation mediated by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is critical to eukaryotic protein homeostasis. Often vital to degradation of protein substrates is their disassembly, unfolding, or extraction from membranes. These ASP2215 in vivo processes are catalyzed by the conserved AAA-ATPase Cdc48 (also known as p97). Here we characterize the Cuz1 protein (Cdc48-associated UBL/zinc finger protein-1), encoded by a previously uncharacterized arsenite-inducible gene in budding yeast. Cuz1, like its human ortholog ZFAND1, has both an AN1-type zinc finger (Zf_AN1) and a divergent ubiquitin-like domain (UBL). We show that Cuz1 modulates Cdc48 function in the UPS. The two proteins directly interact, and the Cuz1 UBL, but not Zf_AN1, is necessary for binding to the Cdc48 N-terminal domain. Cuz1 also associates, albeit more weakly, with the proteasome,

and the UBL is dispensable for this interaction. Cuz1-proteasome interaction is strongly enhanced by exposure of cells to the environmental toxin arsenite, and in a proteasome mutant, loss of Cuz1 enhances arsenite sensitivity. Whereas loss of Cuz1 alone causes only minor UPS degradation defects, its combination with mutations in the Cdc48(Npl4-Ufd1) complex leads to much greater impairment. Cuz1 helps limit the accumulation of ubiquitin conjugates on both the proteasome and Cdc48, suggesting a possible role in the transfer of ubiquitylated substrates from Cdc48 to the proteasome or in their release from these complexes.”
“Enzymes play important roles

in catalysing biochemical transaction paths, acting as logical machines through the morphology of the processes. A key challenge in elucidating the nature of these systems, and Selleckchem S63845 for engineering manufacturing methods inspired by biochemical reactions, is to attain a comprehensive understanding of the stereochemical ground rules of enzymatic reactions. Here, we present a model of catalysis that can be performed magnetically by centimetre-sized passive floating units. The designed system, which is equipped with permanent magnets only, passively obeys the local causalities imposed by magnetic interactions, albeit it shows a spatial behaviour and an energy profile analogous to those of biochemical enzymes.

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