The diversified frequency of sGCSs and variation of GC skews in d

The diversified frequency of sGCSs and variation of GC skews in different genomes usually indicate different replication mechanisms. To investigate the relationship between sGCSs frequency and replication mechanisms, we separated the genomes in the study into several groups according to their sGCS numbers. For example, in most typical Firmicutes (i.e., gram-positive bacteria),

such as S. suis, replicons often Crenigacestat concentration display specific patterns and can therefore be easily detected in the genome. Firmicutes’ sGCSs are most often located at the replication ori/ter and the middle of the genomes. Therefore, the number of sGCSs is usually two. In some strains used in industry, such as Streptomyces avermitilis, the number of sGCSs is often greater than

two because these strains employ different replication mechanisms. Furthermore, in bacteria such as Yersinia AZD1480 in vivo pestis KIM and Y. pestis 91001, sGCS distributions vary significantly due to large scale genome rearrangements, duplications, and Nutlin-3a ic50 insertions. Notably, we found that the appearance of GIs near sGCSs is not impacted by these replication mechanisms and rearrangements. After categorizing the genomes according to their sGCS numbers, we found that for all categories, GIs are highly enriched in the sGCS flanking regions (Figure 2C). Recently acquired GIs were found in a significant number Selleckchem Venetoclax of pathogen isolates [21, 25]. Example of such PAIs are VSP I and II in V. cholerae, which are only found in the Vibrio seventh pandemic. LEE, a well-known GI in Escherichia coli O157, encodes structural, accessory,

effector, and regulatory molecules and is located near to ter sites [25]. An additional 87-kb O island 48 (OI-48) is found in O157:H7 strains, EDL933, and Sakai, which is associated with tellurite-resistance. Our analysis successfully identified these GIs, demonstrating the validity of our approach. Another example of this type of recently acquired island is a 89-kb genome fragment in S. suis that contains zeta-toxin, a two-component signal transduction system, and three ABC transporter cassettes [21]. Again, these islands with genes related to the toxins and infectivity of pathogens are all located near sGCSs, indicating the correlations between GIs and sGCSs. 3.

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