The bladder had to be taken at middle filling by voiding it 1 5 h

The bladder had to be taken at middle filling by voiding it 1.5 hours before simulation and daily before each treatment session. The acquired images were then transferred to the Eclipse (v.8.9) treatment planning system. The clinical target volume (CTV) consisted of the prostate and entire seminal vesicles,

the planning target volume (PTV) was obtained by adding 1 cm margin in all directions except toward the rectum, where the margin was reduced to 0.6 cm according to our institutional policy [19]. The rectal and bladder walls were contoured as critical normal structures, in particular, the rectum G418 solubility dmso was outlined from the sigmoid flexure to the anal margin. Patients were treated with a 15

MV five-field sliding window IMRT technique. The beam arrangement was: posterior (0°), right posterior oblique (75°), right anterior oblique (135°), left anterior oblique (225°) and left posterior oblique (285°). Plans were optimized to give at least 95% and 90% of the prescribed dose to CTV and PTV, respectively. The maximum dose heterogeneity within the PTV was set at 17% (from 90% to 107%). No constraints were applied to the overlapping volume between the PTV and rectum, which was treated as PTV. Dose-volume constraints were set for rectal and selleck chemicals bladder walls and ISRIB datasheet femoral heads. Dose-volume constraints were: maximum 70 Gy, 50 Gy and 40 Gy Interleukin-3 receptor to 30%, 50% and 60% of the rectal wall volume, respectively, maximum 70 Gy and 50 Gy to 50% and 70% of the bladder wall volume, respectively, and maximum 55 Gy to 70% of the femoral heads. The normal tissue planning limits were based on our prior experience and on previously published studies [20–25]. Dose-volume histograms were recorded for all patients. Patients were treated with Varian 2100 linear accelerators (Varian Associates, Palo Alto, CA) equipped with 120-leaf multi-leaf collimators. The accuracy of the set-up

was monitored daily by verifying the position of the isocenter comparing skeletal landmarks on orthogonal portal images acquired with an electronic portal imaging device (EPID) to the digitally reconstructed radiography (DRRs). Study endpoints The primary endpoint of our study was gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicity. Early and late toxicity data were scored according to the Cancer Therapy Evaluation Program, Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, Version 3.0 [26]. Grade 1–4: Grade 1 (mild) – asymptomatic or mild symptoms requiring only clinical or diagnostic observation; Grade 2 (moderate) – minimal, local or noninvasive intervention indicated; Grade 3 (severe) – severe or medically significant but not immediately life-threatening requiring hospitalization, prolonging hospitalization or affecting activities of daily living; Grade 4- life-threatening consequences requiring urgent intervention.

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