Further studies, including molecular and genetic analyses, will p

Further studies, including molecular and genetic analyses, will provide insight into the histogenesis of astroblastoma. “
“K. Aquilina, E. Chakkarapani, S. Love and M. Thoresen (2011) Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology37, 156–165 Neonatal rat model of intraventricular haemorrhage and post-haemorrhagic ventricular dilatation with long-term survival into adulthood Aims: Post-haemorrhagic ventricular dilatation (PHVD) is a significant problem in neonatal care, with sequelae extending beyond childhood. Its management is important in determining outcome. Although rodent hydrocephalus models have been developed, PHVD, as a specific entity with a distinct pathophysiology, has not been studied

in a small animal model surviving to adulthood. ICG-001 clinical trial Our objective is to evaluate survival, to adulthood, in our immature (7-day-old, P7) neonatal rat model, and to analyse early motor reflexes and fine motor and cognitive Gefitinib function, and neuropathology, at 8–12 weeks. Methods: Sixty-six rats underwent sequential bilateral stereotactic

intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH); 36 more acted as controls. Staircase and radial maze evaluations were carried out at 7–11 weeks; animals were sacrificed at 12 weeks. Post mortem ventricular size and corpus callosum thickness were determined. Results: Seventy-six per cent of IVH animals developed PHVD; median (interquartile range) composite ventricular area was 3.46 mm2 (2.32–5.24). Sixteen (24%) animals demonstrated severe ventricular dilatation (area >5 mm2). IVH animals failed to improve

on the negative geotaxis test at 2 weeks. The staircase test did not identify any significant difference. On the radial maze, animals with severe PHVD made more reference errors. Histopathology confirmed PHVD, ependymal disruption and periventricular white matter injury. Median anterior corpus callosum thickness was significantly Metformin nmr lower in IVH animals (0.35 mm) than in those not undergoing IVH (0.43 mm). Conclusion: Our P7 neonatal rat IVH model is suitable for long-term survival and replicates many of the morphological and some of the behavioural features seen in human PHVD. “
“Brain edema is a major contributing factor to the morbidity and mortality of a variety of brain disorders. Although there has been considerable progress in our understanding of pathophysiological and molecular mechanisms associated with brain edema so far, more effective treatment is required and is still awaited. Here we intended to study the effects of low intensity ultrasound (LIUS) on brain edema. We prepared the rat hippocampal slice in vitro and acute water intoxication model in vivo models of brain edema. We applied LIUS stimulation in these models and studied the molecular mechanisms of LIUS action on brain edema. We found that LIUS stimulation markedly inhibited the edema formation in both of these models. LIUS stimulation significantly reduced brain water content and intracranial pressure resulting in increased survival of the rats.

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