Strikingly, CD4+ Vβ5·2 + T cells account for 29·3 ± 5% of the CD4

Strikingly, CD4+ Vβ5·2 + T cells account for 29·3 ± 5% of the CD4+ T cells on average (n = 3), while CD4+ Vβ2 + T cells account for 21·3 ± 7% on average (Fig. 9). Thus, CD4+ Vβ5·2 + T cells showed an approximately 15-fold increase, on average, in the lesions compared to their frequency in blood, while CD4+ Vβ2 + T cells did not show a significant increase. The human immune system joins a variety of factors to combat infection, while maintaining a well-balanced state within the host. Upon infection, the necessity to combat

the pathogen, while maintaining this balanced state, is key for the health of the host. Understanding the events that lead to effective cellular immune responses in humans infected with intracellular pathogens such as Leishmania is key to the development of effective vaccines, immunotherapeutic approaches and specific diagnostics. To elucidate fully the role of T cells in the establishment and maintenance of effective BMN 673 in vitro immune responses to pathogens it is critical to study the dynamics of specific T cell subpopulations in individuals infected with pathogens. One powerful way to monitor the T cell response is by studying

individual T cell subpopulations based on their T cell receptor expression. Due to the availability of a panel of anti-Vβ TCR monoclonal antibodies, together with multi-parameter flow cytometry, we are able to follow the progression of T cell responses in infected patients with the hope of identifying specific T cell subpopulations that are most JAK inhibitor involved in the establishment of a protective or pathogenic immune response. We are able to determine the involvement of these subpopulations MAPK Inhibitor Library cell assay by studying

not only the frequency of these specific subpopulations, but also the functional status via cytokine production and activation state by looking at memory and activation markers. Through studies of the T cell repertoire, one can detect dominant T cell responses directed against specific MHC-peptide or major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-superantigen complexes [19,28]. Thus, by using flow cytometry to measure subpopulations of T cells based on their Vβ TCR chain from actively infected individuals, we aimed to determine the role of specific subpopulations in human CL. Previous work studying the T cell repertoire in human and experimental infectious diseases has been carried out with the goal of identifying specific cellular subpopulations associated with disease development. Regarding experimental models in leishmaniasis, it has been demonstrated that IL-4-producing CD4+ T cells, which are responsible by directing the immune response towards Th2 cells, and therefore leading to pathology, preferentially express Vα8Vβ4 TCR [35,36]. Human leishmaniasis studies have demonstrated that cure of CL caused by L. braziliensis is associated with a higher percentage of T cells and higher IFN-γ production [14,37,38]. In CL caused by L.

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