Following stimula tion, astrocytic those APP levels reached 300% of control at 24 h and stayed relatively constant for the duration of the experiment. BACE1 levels, on the other hand, took longer to increase and gave no indication of level ing off by 96 h when they reached 400 600% of con trol. The cytokine combinations also caused significant increases of secreted Ab40 levels, but this occurred only at 96 h, demonstrating a significant lag period between increased levels of APP and BACE1 on the one hand and elevated Ab production and secretion on the other. Since levels of both Ab40 and Ab42 increase in parallel following BACE1 cleavage of APP, it is likely that astrocytic Ab42 production was also elevated by cyto kine combinations including TNF a IFN g.
Unexpect edly, IL 1b treatment resulted in Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries a decrease of secreted Ab40 levels at 96 h. However, this may be understood in light of the observation that IL 1b treatment did not significantly increase astrocytic APP or BACE1 levels. Along with our results, other reports also indicate that IL 1b may reduce amyloidogenic processing of APP. TNF a IFN g stimulation was associated with robust elevations of APP, BACE1, and Ab in astrocytes. Interestingly, post transcriptional mechanisms appeared to be responsible for a large proportion of the TNF a IFN g stimulated increases in astrocytic APP and BACE1 levels. APP and BACE1 mRNA levels did not increase upon stimulation, with the exception of slightly elevated APP mRNA at 96 h. In fact, BACE1 mRNA levels were significantly decreased by TNF a IFN g sti mulation, strongly Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries suggesting that the BACE1 elevation was post transcriptional.
Our study is also the first to show that both oligo meric and fibrillar forms of Ab42 increase the levels of astrocytic APP and BACE1 Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries mRNA and protein, and that they stimulate b secretase processing of APP in astro cytes. Similar to TNF a IFN g stimulation, oligomeric and fibrillar Ab42 treatment of primary astrocytes ele vated endogenous APP levels to 300 500% of control, although Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries these increases were short lived. Also, Ab42 oligomers and fibrils caused robust, long lived increases in astrocytic BACE1 levels, akin to those caused by TNF a IFN g stimulation. Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries Although we were unable to directly measure Ab production in Ab42 stimulated astrocytes, we did interrogate b secre tase processing by analyzing the generation of APPsbsw, the product of BACE1 cleavage, in Ab42 treated Tg2576 astrocytes.
We found that Ab42 oligomers and fibrils strongly induced astrocytic BACE1 cleavage of APPsw. Given that b secretase processing of APP and Ab pro duction are tightly coupled, it is likely that Ab genera tion was also elevated in Ab42 stimulated Tg2576 astrocytes. Finally, the Ab42 stimulated elevations of astrocytic APP and BACE1 were kinase inhibitor Cabozantinib potentially the result of increased APP and BACE1 gene transcription, at least in part.