It was also revealed that the mRNA expression level of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) in the gastric mucosa BVD-523 concentration was significantly increased at 12 weeks after infection. No gastric lymphoid follicles were detected in IFN-γ-deficient mice that had been infected with H. suis at 12 weeks after infection, although the development of lymphoid follicles in IL-4-deficient mice infected with H. suis was similar to that seen in the wild-type mice. In conclusion, IFN-γ, a Th1 cytokine, is deeply involved in the pathogenesis of gastric lymphoid follicles induced by H. suis infection, and it is suggested that CD4-positive T cells and
DC aid in the expansion of gastric lymphoid follicles. Helicobacter pylori is the most common Helicobacter species that colonizes in the stomach of humans. Helicobacter pylori is known to be associated with gastritis, gastroduodenal ulcers, gastric RG-7204 adenocarcinoma (Parsonnet et al., 1991), and gastric
mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma (Parsonnet et al., 1994). ‘Helicobacter heilmannii’ has been reported as the non-H. pylori Helicobacter species found in the stomachs of various animals including cats, dogs, and pigs, and has also been observed in humans. However, the name ‘H. heilmannii’ had been used to represent several gastric spiral bacterium including Helicobacter suis, Helicobacter felis, Helicobacter salomonis, Helicobacter bizzozeronii, and ‘Candidatus H. heilmannii’ (Haesebrouck et al., 2009). ‘Helicobacter heilmannii’ infection causes various gastric diseases including gastric Rapamycin MALT lymphoma similar to H. pylori infection (Duquenoy & Le Luyer, 2009). However, multiple studies have demonstrated that the gastrointestinal diseases caused by
‘H. heilmannii’ and H. pylori have different pathogeneses. For example, ‘H. heilmannii’-associated gastritis is milder than H. pylori-induced gastritis (Joo et al., 2007). It was also revealed that the prevalence of MALT lymphoma in ‘H. heilmannii’-infected patients is higher than that in H. pylori-infected patients (Morgner et al., 2000). These results suggest that the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogeneses of diseases caused by ‘H. heilmannii’ infection are different from those caused by H. pylori infection. In a previous report, O’Rourke et al. (2004b) classified ‘H. heilmannii’ into ‘H. heilmannii’ type 1 and ‘H. heilmannii’ type 2 based on the sequences of its 16S rRNA and urease genes, and ‘H. heilmannii’ type 1 is morphologically and genetically identical to a bacterium found in the stomach of pigs that was recently defined as H. suis (Baele et al., 2008). Previously, the inflammatory responses in gastric mucosa infected with H. pylori were investigated using in vitro cultured cell systems and various animal models. Although H. pylori are not able to invade into the gastric mucosa, antigen-presenting cells, such as dendritic cells (DC) and macrophages, recognize antigens from H.