Actually radiologist use different protocols and features for gra

Actually radiologist use different protocols and features for grading CD, as recently selleck kinase inhibitor showed by Ziech et al[78]. The authors show that the most frequently used MR protocols include T2-w (79%) and CE FS-T1-w (83%) sequences and that the features most frequently seen as important for grading are the presence of bowel wall thickening (79% of radiologists), abscesses (75%) and CE (75%) and stratification (46%) at T1-w images. Currently, the most important applications of MR care the confirmation of the disease and the follow-up of patients with an already established diagnosis of CD, both by monitoring the response to medical treatment by assessing disease activity (Figure (Figure15)15) and by early identifying of abscesses, fistulae and strictures. Figure 15 Twelve years old female with active disease and follow-up.

Transverse T2-weighted image (A) shows mural thickening (arrows) and increased mural signal (arrow) in the terminal ileum and coronal T1-weighted image (B) shows mural stratification (arrow), … Penetrating disease Transmural inflammation can result from ulcers that deeply penetrate the bowel wall forming serpiginous tracts and fistulas. MR enterography is accurate in identifying extraluminal complications of CD. In young adults MR enterography showed a diagnostic value similar to MDCT enterography at least for acute complications of CD, such as fistulas and abscesses[79]. The abscesses can be treated by percutaneous interventions. Whereas penetrating disease may benefit from antibiotics or biologic therapies, while the use of steroids is usually avoided.

Because of the exquisite sensitivity to detect fluid as well as its superior soft tissue contrast, MR easily depicts entero-entero (Figure (Figure16),16), entero-vesicular, entero-cutaneous, perianal fistulaes and abscesses (Figure (Figure17).17). MR imaging may also detect small volumes of gas within an abscess (Figure (Figure11).11). MR enterography can assess fistulizations, sinus tracts, and abscesses, especially with the use of post-contrast FS-T1-w images (Figure (Figure10)10) because of their avidly enhancing walls[80]. Entero-enteric fistulas often form a complex network between closely adherent SB loops that may appear as a stellate configuration on CE MR images. Figure 16 Transverse T2-w image (A) and coronal post-contrast FS-T1-w image (B) show cluster of bowel loops (arrow) interconnected by fistulas and adhesions.

Figure 17 Coronal (A) and transverse (B and C) CE FS-T1-w 3D gradient-echo image show a small abscess close to the terminal ileum (arrows). Mural stratification and ��comb sign�� of the right colon flessure (black arrow), Entinostat cecum (curved arrow), and … Fibrostenosing disease Over the time, chronic inflammation of the bowel wall may evolve in mural fibrosis that can lead to intestinal occlusion if it causes strictures.

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