Psychologically, being in a depressed state and life events are s

Psychologically, being in a depressed state and life events are somewhat connected as well as being different. Being depressed is a continuing psychological status, whereas life events are associated with short-term inner feelings and thoughts.

An increasing number of retrospective and prospective studies, including a wide range of sample sizes, have shown the importance of the relationship between life events and the occurrence of breast cancer. Among various types of life events, we found that striking life events contributed more to tumor development. Interestingly, severe life events, important this website life changes, major life events, severe threat events, and great threat events have been used to describe the similar psychological characteristics of striking life events in this study [17–21]. The seven selected studies differed somewhat in their definition of striking life events. One study divided individual feelings into four levels, severe, moderate, some, and little or no,

with severe feelings defined as striking life events Selleckchem CP690550 [17]. A second study defined striking life events as death of a spouse, family member, or friend; sickness of a family member; sickness of the individual (except for cancer); divorce; economic events; self or spouse retirement or unemployment; and moving one’s residence, suggesting that these be considered a standard set of evaluations of striking life events [18]. Since the inclusion of divorce may be open to different interpretations and may result in a lack of significance of the results, we removed this study from our analysis. A third study defined striking life events by their respective scores or as the numbers of events [20]. Although many previous

studies have utilized number rather than degree, validation requires larger patient populations. Sinomenine Our meta-analysis found that women with striking life events were at 1.5-fold higher risk of developing breast cancer than women without these striking life events (combined OR 1.51, 95% CI 1.15 – 1.97). A forest plot showed a diamond shape, with striking life events on the right side of the LY2835219 concentration invalid line, suggesting that striking life events were strongly associated with the incidence of primary breast cancer. However, although our results indicated that striking life events were positively associated with breast cancer occurrence, the OR was not high and the lower limit of the 95% CI was only 1.15. More importantly, our meta-analysis found that women with a severe degree of striking life events had an OR of 2.07 (95% CI 1.06 – 4.03) of developing breast cancer, suggesting that more severe striking life events contribute to a higher risk of primary breast cancer in women. Our findings suggest that psychological treatment of striking life events may reduce breast cancer occurrence.

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