Poly(p-phenylene) (PPP) is a conductive polymer which possesses s

Poly(p-phenylene) (PPP) is a conductive polymer which possesses several advantages such as the ease of synthesis, high stability, and chemical resistance. PPP can be used in many other applications: sellckchem rechargeable batteries, electrodes, etc. [9]. PPP has also been used as a gas sensing material since its optical and electrical properties change under exposures to particular gases [10,11].Toxic and flammable gases such as CO, SO2, NH3 and H2 are commonly used and released from industrial plants. With respect to sensing applications, the interaction between the gases, the target gases, and CPs can be divided into two types: either the conductivity increases or decreases depending on both the undoped/doped state of the CPs and the electrophilic/nucleophilic behavior of the target gases [6,11-13].

Conductive polymers such as polypyrrole [14], polyaniline [15,16], polyaniline-carboxylated PVC composite [17], and polyaniline/epoxy resin (SU-8) composite [18] have been investigated as NH3 sensors.To induce or enhance the interaction between CPs and the target gases, zeolite molecular sieves have been employed [19] due to their nanometric Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries sized channel systems that provide size and shape-selective Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries properties. The adsorption properties of zeolite depend on the zeolite type, the pore size, temperature, and the type of cation residing in the pore. There are two well-known mechanisms for the selective adsorption of zeolites [20]. First, the molecular sieve property, whereby molecules small enough to pass Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries through are adsorbed while larger molecules are not.

Second, the zeolite chemical composition; Si/Al ratio is the major factor controlling the hydrophilic/hydrophobic properties of materials. The introduction of specific cations, by Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries using the cation exchange method, can dramatically alter gas adsorption properties.In order to fabricate a sensor with good selectivity which can be operated at room temperature, a conductive polymer AV-951 and a zeolite are mixed together to combine the advantages of these two materials. In this work, we propose the fabrication of poly(p-phenylene)/zeolite composites for use as an ammonia gas sensor. ZSM-5 zeolite is used as an absorbent. The porous ZSM-5 zeolite induces target gas to contact with low porosity conductive poly(p-phenylene).

The effects of ammonia concentration, zeolite content, and cation types, including kinase inhibitor Vandetanib H+, Na+, K+ and NH4+ on the electrical conductivity response towards ammonia are systematically investigated.2.?Experimental2.1. MaterialsBenzene (AR grade) was obtained from Thai Aromatic Co., Ltd and was freshly distilled before use as the monomer. Aluminium chloride and cupric chloride (AR grades, Riedel-de Haen) were used as the oxidant and the catalyst for the synthesis of poly(p-phenylene), respectively. Hydrochloric acid (AR grade, JT Baker) was used as the washing solution. Ferric chloride (AR grade, Fisher Scientific) and ethanol (99.

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