Ouabain, a Na/K ATPase pump inhibitor, was stereotactically injec

Ouabain, a Na/K ATPase pump inhibitor, was stereotactically injected into the right striatum

of Wistar rats. One week later, the superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO)-labeled rat BMSCs (n=7) or vehicle (n=8) were stereotactically transplanted into PLX3397 mouse the left striatum. Using rotarod test, motor function was serially evaluated through the experiment. A 7.0-T MR apparatus was employed to serially monitor the migration of BMSCs in the host brain. Histological analysis was performed at 7 weeks after ouabain injection, i.e., 6 weeks after BMSC transplantation. Ouabain injection yielded the reproducible, focal lesion in the right striatum, causing continuous motor dysfunction throughout the experiment. BMSC transplantation significantly enhanced the recovery of motor function after

ouabain injection. MR imaging demonstrated that the BMSCs aggressively migrated towards the lesion through the corpus callosum. Histological analysis supported the findings on MRI. The BMSCs significantly enhanced the neurogenesis in the subventricular zone (SVZ) on both sides. Some of them also expressed neuronal or astrocytic phenotypes in the neocortex, SVZ, corpus callosum, and pen-lesion area. These findings strongly suggest that the BMSCs may serve therapeutic impacts on lacunar stroke when stereotactically transplanted at clinically relevant timing.”
“Mutualistic associations shape the evolution in different AZD6094 organism groups. The association

between the leaf-cutter ant Atta sexdens and the basidiomycete fungus Leucoagaricus gongylophorus has enabled them to degrade starch from plant material generating glucose, which is a major food source for both mutualists. Starch degradation is promoted by enzymes EVP4593 mouse contained in the fecal fluid that ants deposit on the fungus culture in cut leaves inside the nests. To understand the dynamics of starch degradation in ant nests, we purified and characterized starch degrading enzymes from the ant fecal fluid and from laboratory cultures of L. gongylophorus and found that the ants intestine positively selects fungal alpha-amylase and a maltase likely produced by the ants, as a negative selection is imposed to fungal maltase and ant alpha-amylases. Selected enzymes are more resistant to catabolic repression by glucose and proposed to structure a metabolic pathway in which the fungal alpha-amylase initiates starch catalysis to generate byproducts which are sequentially degraded by the maltase to produce glucose. The pathway is responsible for effective degradation of starch and proposed to represent a major evolutionary innovation enabling efficient starch assimilation from plant material by leaf-cutters. (c) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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