“Objective-To determine whether it is safe to vaccinate pregnant or postpartum mares with a commercial modified-live virus vaccine against equine viral arteritis (EVA).
Design-Randomized controlled study.
Animals-73 mares and their foals.
Procedures-Mares were vaccinated during mid gestation, during late gestation, or 2 or 3 days after parturition with a commercial modified-live virus vaccine or were not vaccinated. Foaling outcomes were recorded, and serum, blood, milk, and nasopharyngeal samples were obtained.
Results-All mares vaccinated during mid gestation foaled without any problems; 21 of 22 mares in this group had antibody titers selleck kinase inhibitor against EAV at the time of foaling. Of the 19 mares
vaccinated during late gestation, 3 aborted; antibody titers against EAV were detected in 13 of 15 mares from which BVD-523 in vitro serum was obtained at the time of foaling. All postparturient vaccinates were seronegative at foaling; all of them seroconverted after vaccination. No adverse effects were detected in any of their foals.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-When
faced with a substantial risk of natural exposure to EAV, it would appear to be safe to vaccinate healthy pregnant mares up to 3 months before foaling and during the immediate postpartum period. Vaccinating mares during the last 2 months of gestation was associated with a risk of abortion; this risk must be weighed against the much greater risk of widespread abortions in unprotected populations of pregnant mares naturally infected
with EAV. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2011238:741-750)”
“Although greater alcohol consumption has been associated with decreased odds of quitting smoking in prospective studies, I��B/IKK inhibitor the aspects of drinking most strongly associated with quitting have not been fully explored and examination of potential confounder variables has been limited. Further studies are needed to inform efforts to enhance smoking cessation among the substantial portion of smokers who drink alcohol. The present study examines: (a) drinking frequency, average weekly quantity of alcohol consumption, and frequency of heavy drinking as prospective predictors of quit smoking behaviors, (b) difference across countries in this prediction, and (c) third variables that might account for the association between alcohol consumption and quitting smoking. Data were drawn from the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey, a prospective cohort study of smokers in Australia, Canada, the UK, and the US. A total of 4831 participants provided alcohol data at one study wave and were re-interviewed I year later. Individuals who drank heavily (4+/5+ drinks for women and men, respectively) more than once a week had significantly lower rates of quitting smoking than all other participants, in part due to the fact that a significantly lower proportion of those making a quit attempt remained quit for more than 1 month at follow-up.