(Naitoh, 2008) ATP run off from RNA is something like the joker i

(Naitoh, 2008) ATP run off from RNA is something like the joker in the card-game of old maid. The other redundant uridine triphosphate (UTP) became polysaccharide-generator.

Possible answers were given also for the questions why two types of nitrogenous bases, large purine and small pyrimidine, are used for nucleic acids and also why only twenty types of amino-acids are employed for proteins. (Naitoh 2001, 2006) Physical thought experiment may bring us the possible overall scenario explaining the origin of nitrogenous bases www.selleckchem.com/products/cb-839.html and nucleic acids. Benson, D.A., et al (2003) GenBank. Nucleic Acids Res. 31: 23–7. de Duve, C. (2005) Singularity: Landmarks on the pathways of life, Cambridge University Press. DNA Data Bank of Japan, (“http://​www.​ddbj.​nig.​ac.​jp/​”) JCM On-line catalogue, Japan Collection of Microorganisms, RIKEN, “http://​www.​jcm.​riken.​go.​jp/​”. Lowe, T.M., & Eddy, S.R. (1997) find more tRNAscan-SE: a program for improved detection of transfer RNA genes in genomic sequence. Nucleic Acids Res., 25: 955–64. (available at “http://​rna.​wustl.​edu/​tRNAdb/​”) Nakamura, Y., Gojobori, T., & Ikemura, T. (2000) Codon usage tabulated from the international DNA sequence databases. Nucl. Acids Res., 28: 292. (available at “http://​www.​kazusa.​or.​jp/​codon/​”)

selleck products Naitoh, K.(2001) Cyto-fluid Dynamic Theory, Japan Journal of Industrial and Applied Mathematics, 18–1: 75–105. Naitoh, K.(2005) Self-organising mechanism of biosystems, Journal of PIK3C2G Artificial Life and Robotics, 9: 96–98. Naitoh, K. (2006) Gene engine and machine engine, Springer-Japan. Naitoh, K. (2008) Inevitability of nTP, Information-energy carrier, Proceedings of 13th International Symposium on Artificial Life and Robotics. E-mail: [email protected]​jp FeS Surface Dynamics

& Molecular Evolution Andrew J, Pratt*, Vladimir Golovko, Henry Toombs-Ruane Department of Chemistry, University of Canterbury, New Zealand In accordance with Mike Russell’s model for the origin of life at alkaline hydrothermal vent systems (Martin and Russell, 2003) iron-sulfur mineral systems mediate a wide variety of processes that are required for the origin of metabolism and hence life on earth: they provide a continuous input of redox energy; and catalyse a range of transformations that mimic extant FeS-dependent processes of anaerobic metabolism including carbon (Huber and Wächtershäuser, 1997) and nitrogen (Dörr et al., 2003) fixation reactions. Furthermore, iron mineral precipitates catalyse biomimetic phosphoryl-transfer processes, including the generation and accumulation of polyphosphates (de Zwart et al., 2004).

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