Mice lacking IL-23 (p19−/−) have been shown to be resistant to CIA, which was correlated with an absence of IL-17-producing Th17 cells despite normal induction of collagen-specific, IFN-γ-producing Th1 cells. On the contrary, knock-out mice for the Th1 cytokine IL-12 (p35−/−) have more IL-17-producing Th17 cells and develop CIA readily . The key role of Th17 in CIA was confirmed further by reports MK-2206 solubility dmso showing that CIA was suppressed in IL-17-deficient mice and that administration of neutralizing anti-IL-17 antibodies reduced significantly the severity of CIA [37,38]. IL-6 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β are two important factors that
may be involved in the aggregation of arthritis observed in our experiment. TGF-β1 can increase buy Daporinad the IL-17+ cell fraction markedly, and is sufficient by itself to promote robust Th17 development [39–41]. Meanwhile, TGF-β1 also induces the expression of forkhead box P3 (FoxP3) (Treg), a suppressive T cell
subpopulation . IL-6 can inhibit TGF-β-induced generation of FoxP3+ Treg cells and help to establish Th17 prominence [43,44]. Moreover, anti-IL-6R treatment for CIA has been confirmed to suppress the differentiation of antigen-specific Th17 and the onset of the disease . In this study, we have shown in vivo that administration of Flk-1+ MSCs at day 21 increased the serum level of IL-6 (day 25) strikingly. This was confirmed in in vitro co-culture experiments. The increased IL-6 would then favour Th17 differentiation and contribute to aggravation of the disease, as discussed above. Although
T cells play a prominent role in the regulation and development of the autoimmune response in CIA, B cells and autoantibodies to murine Bumetanide CII appear to be the primary mechanism of immunopathogenesis in this model. It has been demonstrated previously that passive transfer of CII-specific T cells cannot induce arthritis [46,47], yet the passive transfer of immune sera from arthritic mice to naive mice induces severe inflammation [48–55], and once the transferred antibody is depleted, inflammatory responses subside. The autoantibody activates complement cascades and the inflammation that follows contributes to the development of erosive arthritis . Reports from independent laboratories have demonstrated that MSCs can prolong the survival of plasma cells and stimulate antibody secretion through IL-6 and very late activation antigen-4 (VLA-4) [56,57]. IL-6/signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) signalling has also been reported to regulate the ability of naive T cells to acquire B cell help capacity . In this study, we found that the splenocytes of Flk-1+ MSC-treated mice showed a higher proliferative capacity than those of the control CIA mice.