Materials and Methods: Eight patients with Parkinson’s disease an

Materials and Methods: Eight patients with Parkinson’s disease and detrusor overactivity refractory to anticholinergics were injected with

100 U botulinum toxin type A. Daytime and nighttime urinary frequency, and urinary incontinence episodes were selleck products recorded. Patients also completed a standardized quality of life questionnaire on incontinence and a visual analog scale on the impact of bladder problems on daily life activities, and underwent urodynamic assessment, including pressure flow studies. Clinical and urodynamic assessment was performed before, and 1, 3 and 6 months after injection.

Results: In all patients 100 U botulinum toxin type A induced decreased daytime and nighttime urinary frequency, a decreased number of

urinary incontinence episodes, increased quality of life scores and, as shown by increased maximum cystometric capacity, improved urodynamic findings. In 2 patients with Parkinson’s disease post-void residual urine volume developed.

Conclusions: Intradetrusor injection of 100 U botulinum toxin type A induced clinical and urodynamic improvement in overactive bladder symptoms that lasted at least 6 months in patients with Parkinson’s disease.”
“A 7-year-old girl with a history of recurrent urinary tract infection since the age of 3 years is known to have bilateral, moderately severe (grade III) vesicoureteral Elacridar reflux. Renal scintigraphy with technetium-99-labeled dimercaptosuccinic acid has revealed bilateral scarring in the upper poles of her kidneys, with more severe scarring on the left kidney than on the right. Despite ongoing antimicrobial prophylaxis, she has recently had another febrile urinary tract infection, which

responded most well to antibiotic treatment. Radionuclide cystography reveals persistent bilateral, moderately severe vesicoureteral reflux. The patient has no history of constipation or dysfunctional voiding. She is referred to a pediatric urologist, who discusses with the patient and her parents the various treatment options, including endoscopic correction.”
“The current research synthesis integrates the findings of 111 independent samples from 54 economically developing countries that examined the relation between economic status and subjective well-being (SWB). The average economic status-SWB effect size was strongest among low-income developing economies (r = .28) and for samples that were least educated (r = .36). The relation was weakest among high-income developing economies (r = .10) and for highly educated samples (r = .13). Controlling for numerous covariates, the partial r effect size remained significant for the least-educated samples (pr = .18).

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